Table of contents:
- How did you manage to orient the building so precisely?
- How did you manage to deliver blocks weighing tens of tons from the quarries?
- Stonehenge military hangars
- Stonehenge Railroad
- What was the megalithic complex intended for and who built it?
Stonehenge is perhaps one of the most famous megalithic structures in the world. It is called “the most mysterious prehistoric monument” and “a giant stone riddle in the very center of Europe”. Let's see what is mysterious about it, leaving aside common misconceptions.
The official data are as follows: Stonehenge is a vertical set of stones that form concentric circles. It is believed that there are many Neolithic and Bronze Age burials around. Archaeologists believe the complex was built sometime between 3000 BC. until 2000 BC
The first explorers of this megalithic complex had a very dubious biography.
The history of stone research is primarily associated with freemasonWilliam Stukeley, whose dates of active life coincide with the beginning of the seizure of power in England by the Dutch dynasty of Orange, representing the interests of the usurers of the notorious Bank of Amsterdam. It was in his likeness in 1696 that private Bank of England.
He took an active part in the work Isaac Newton, appointed in 1696 as Caretaker, and in 1699 as Director of the Royal Mint. His highly publicized discoveries in physics were a "by-product" of his studies in almichy and kabbalism. Another important occupation of Newton was the calculation of the date of the "end of the world" from the Jewish texts, where he sought out "secret codes" with Talmudic persistence.
The aforementioned “pioneer of Stonehenge” William Stukeley became the first “official” biographer of the alchemist and kabbalist Newton, who concealed many facts of his biography, including the creation of the first “financial pyramid” - the Bank of England. It was the Freemason Stukeley who began to call himself the "Arch-Druid".
One of the main sources of information on the Stonehenge megalithic complex is the site English Heritage.
English Heritage is a parastatal organization that took over the management of Stonehenge in 1983-1984 by its true owner, the British Royal Family.
Among the main mysteries of Stonehenge are the following:
1. What was this megalithic complex intended for?
2. Who, when and how built it?
3. How did you manage to deliver blocks weighing tens of tons from the quarries?
4. How did you manage to orient the building so precisely?
Let's try to give answers to all these questions, starting with the last one, based on historical facts.
How did you manage to orient the building so precisely?
The megaliths of Stonehenge are precisely aligned with the starry sky and point to such astronomically significant points as the rising and setting of the Sun on the days of the summer and winter solstices. To arrange stones in this way, one must have modern astronomical knowledge. The mystery, in fact, is where did the builders of Stonehenge have such knowledge?
Let's turn to recent historical facts. Dr. Christopher Chippindale, archaeologist, author of several publications on Stonehenge, lecturer in archeology at the University of Cambridge, senior curator at the Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, argues that "Little of what we see at Stonehenge has remained intact in one way or another."
In the archives of the organization "English Heritage", which is entrusted with the protection of Stonehenge, in the public domain there are many photographs that are evidence of the large-scale restructuring of Stonehenge.
In 1953-1958, work was carried out at the Stonehenge facility using heavy equipment, including many cranes.
Construction work in the middle of the 20th century was so extensive that some researchers are inclined to consider them the construction of Stonehenge from scratch.
Reconstruction video 1949-1958:
However, the version seems more likely, according to which approximately 60 years ago, an exact placement was made and orientation by the starry sky brought several decades earlier and whipped up megaliths to give the structure the appearance of an "ancient observatory."
Unsurprisingly, the stones are so precisely oriented and indicate, in particular, the points of sunrise and sunset, since the level of technology of the 50s of the last century was high enough to position the stones with very high accuracy.
As can be seen from the photographs, the technology was advanced at the time. There were several cranes, of various designs and different lifting capacities.
For the application of runic signs and for more delicate work, manual labor was also used, including even manual winches for lighter stones.
The work was supervised at the state level with a thorough check of the quality of the work performed. It is noteworthy that there were quite a few children at the construction site - no one from the construction site made a special secret.
As you will see later, the entire area around Stonehenge was carefully monitored, so there are no "random people" in these photos.
Some megaliths were transported to Stonehenge on high-capacity automobile platforms, which moved along the flooring of sleepers lined with “herringbone” so as not to damage the lawn.
The stones were installed with high precision in the previously prepared "holes". During installation, the accuracy of the location was verified by construction engineers using geodetic instruments.
It is not known what plans the specialists checked when placing the megaliths, since no construction documentation or even a mention of the existence of any plans has been preserved in the public domain.
In many photographs, "striped sticks" are clearly visible - these are geodetic rods for leveling and accurately placing stones.
Geodetic rods are used in conjunction with levels, which are also often found in photographs of the large-scale reconstruction of Stonehenge.
Sometimes simple tape measures, hand-held optical instruments, and rulers were also used. The simple eye of civil engineers has been carefully checked with instruments.
Precisely set stones were fixed in place with modern concrete. The photo clearly shows the name of the company "Premix", which has survived to this day, supplying concrete for Stonehenge.
Some construction work, like, for example, this patch on the megalith was done deliberately roughly and for show. Apparently, this was necessary to somehow explain the use of modern concrete.
Obviously, the megalith could not have stood in this position upright before the patch was installed, so nothing definite can be said about its current location.
In fairness, it should be noted that the first, apparently not entirely successful, attempts to accurately locate the stones under the guise of "reconstruction" of Stonehenge were made at the beginning of the 20th century.
But the "reconstruction" after the end of the Second World War showed the world a megalithic complex, ideally oriented towards the starry sky.
Thus, on the official website of the "English Heritage" organization there are freely available more than 200 photosshowing in detail rebuilding of Stonehenge in 1953-1958 years with the use of modern precision geodetic equipment and heavy mechanisms for the delivery and installation of megaliths.
At the moment, no reliable documentary materials have been preserved about the actual location of the megaliths in antiquity.Historical diagrams do not inspire much credibility and look more like sketches or even sketches for future construction, including the very first Stonehenge diagram by William Stukeley, included in his book and officially dated 1740. His sketches completely do not correspond to reality about Stonehenge, as it is presented to us by historians.
Therefore, any research into the "mystery" of the exact astronomical orientation of megaliths and proof that Stonehenge is an ancient observatory rests against the simple fact that all the stones were somehow shifted and placed approximately 60 years agowhich was what Dr. Christopher Chipindale, professor of archeology at Cambridge, lamented.
The answer to the first riddle of Stonehenge: "How did you manage to orient the megaliths so precisely in the starry sky?" sounds prosaically simple: with the help of British technology and equipment of the mid-20th century.
Let's move on to the second riddle.
How did you manage to deliver blocks weighing tens of tons from the quarries?
A little help:
Stonehenge is mainly composed of huge natural sandy megalithic boulders called "Sarsen", weighing from 7 to 50 tons. The second type of Stonehenge megaliths are free-standing so-called "blue stones" weighing up to 5 tons. Megaliths got this name for the blue hue, which appears only when the stones get wet.
Huge Sarsens are found on the surface of the Marlborough Downs, which is 30 kilometers north of Stonehenge.
"Blue stones" were brought from afar. At the moment, it has been reliably established that the "blue stones" formed in a small area of a square mile in the Preselli Mountains in Wales - and only there. Based on this, scientists conclude that the "blue stones" traveled to Stonehenge at least 200 kilometers.
How were these multi-ton megaliths delivered to a distance of tens and hundreds of kilometers to Stonehenge?
The answer, apparently, lies in the military specialized dual-use infrastructure that was deployed directly around Stonehenge and is partially preserved to this day.
Let's go back to the facts about a hundred years ago.
Stonehenge military hangars
The existence of a military airfield and huge hangars on the territory of Stonehenge is a little-known fact.
To illustrate, here's a comment from one of the British forums:
Several years ago I attended one of the public meetings to discuss the construction of an automobile tunnel near Stonehenge. One of the objections of opponents of converting the A303 road into an expressway was the threat of destruction of archeology. I was honored with rather strange looks when I pointed out to those present that the archeology, about which "they" were concerned, had long been destroyed by airfield buildings. The fact that [within Stonehenge] there was once an airfield was news to most of the crowd, including some of the bigs from the English Heritage.
Let's turn to the authoritative source - the report on the archaeological study of the area around Stonehenge, published on the English Heritage site.
Before you is a map from an official document, which shows the surroundings of Stonehenge as of approximately the beginning of the twentieth century.
Airfields are marked in light blue on the map:
1. "Larkhill" (right, top) and
2. "Stonehenge" (left, bottom).
3. The Stonehenge megalithic circle is directly adjacent to the airfield.
The history of these military airfields is quite extensive and deserves a separate story. In order not to deviate from the main topic, we only note that Larkhill airfield was the first military airfield in Britain.
Actually, we are not interested in the airfields themselves, although the choice of their location looks rather strange, but the hangars built in the immediate vicinity of Stonehenge and the railway laid to these hangars.
The Wikitravel website reads literally the following: “Stonehenge and the land immediately adjacent to it were returned to the nation in 1918. In this area, on the edge of the military training ground, many military buildings have been built, including barracks, a light railroad and an airfield within a stone's throw of Stonehenge."
At the Stonehenge airfield, in particular, the Handley-Page 0/400 aircraft were located - the heaviest mass bombers of the First World War. The height of this aircraft is 6 meters 70 centimeters, the wingspan is more than 30 meters.
Military hangars were built near Stonehenge, which were able to accommodate, in particular, such large aircraft.
Almost nothing is left of the hangars near Stonehenge today, but old, rather blurry photographs of 1929 show that the size of the military hangar was huge - if desired, Stonehenge could fit into the hangar entirely.
Amateur historians find parts of the hangar foundations near Stonehenge. The so-called "military twin hangars for general service", similar to those standing next to Stonehenge, have been preserved as a monument of military history.
Now it is no longer possible to restore for certain what kind of equipment or materials were actually stored in these hangars located 500 meters from the Stonehenge circle, but these rooms could hide, if necessary, both heavy construction equipment and the huge megaliths themselves or their blanks. Even the very fact that huge hangars were located so close to Stonehenge is quite carefully camouflaged.
Two more facts are strange:
- hangars on the vast open spaces of the airfield were built exactly in the immediate vicinity of Stonehenge, according to the apt expression on the Wikitravel website - "at a stone's throw distance."
- the second strange fact is the presence of a military railway, which led directly to these military hangars.
The so-called light military railway was called Larkhil. It started from the main line of London-Salisbury, connecting with the entire railway network of England, passed through the military town of Larkhill and branched out into several branches that led to the hangars of Stonehenge, military training grounds and warehouses. There are several historical maps where the road is clearly visible. Even today, you can trace where the roadbed ran.
The "light" railway was called not because its carrying capacity was limited, but in connection with the Light Railways Act of 1896. According to this act, land owners (such as the military department, on the lands of which Stonehenge stood) had the right to build railways on lightweight projects that did not require legal approval. In other words, the practically uncontrolled construction of railways that meet standard technical requirements on the land of the owner was allowed.
There are more detailed maps compiled in 2001 by the archaeological company Wessex Archeology as part of an archaeological survey of the area around Stonehenge in connection with the planned construction of a two-kilometer tunnel south of the megaliths.
The document compiled from these studies, page 12, provides a detailed map of the area near Stonehenge, marked by the researchers with the letter 'Q'.
The map clearly shows the railway going from the north-west of the map and passing between two small hills. Remember these two mounds in order to make a binding to the terrain on aerial photography a little later.
On the next page of the same document, there is a map of the neighboring area, marked with the letter "S", which includes the very circle of Stonehenge megaliths.If you combine both maps, then, using a large-scale cartographic grid, it is easy to determine that the railway ended about 500 meters from Stonehenge, where the military hangars were located.
So, to the question "How did you manage to deliver blocks weighing tens of tons from the quarries?" can be answered like this:
To deliver the stones, a large, sparsely populated area was purchased for military purposes in the 80s of the 19th century.
In the nearest village of Amesbury, there were less than 1000 inhabitants who were occupied at military installations, some villages were simply settled under the guise of a military training ground. Agricultural activity in the large area of the plain where Stonehenge is located is prohibited.
Passed the "Light Railways" Act, which allowed railways to be built without approval, and built the "Larkhill Light Military Railroad". On maps from official sources, the road ended with aircraft hangars located 450 meters from the Stonehenge circle. As "Wikitravel" writes - at a distance of a stone's throw. The delivery of stones is carried out using the railway. platform cranes and installed approximately in their present places under the guise of ruins during the "first reconstruction of 1901".
The railway platform crane can be seen even now. Three kilometers north of Stonehenge, on the premises of the Royal School of Artillery in the military town of Larkhill, stands an 18-inch howitzer on a special rail carriage with a 110-ton lifting mechanism. According to official data, the carriage of 1886, built with a hydraulic lifting mechanism of 110 tons, is 33 years older than the howitzer and was used separately from it for 52 years - from 1886 to 1938. Details of the use of the gun carriage during this period are unknown.
It was this lifting mechanism on a railway carriage that was apparently used to transport massive loads weighing up to hundreds of tons to the Stonehenge area.
Of course, at this stage there is no mechanism for precise positioning of stones, so they imitate the ruins of the "first reconstruction of 1901".
So, we are left with two main questions:
What was the megalithic complex intended for and who built it?
The most reasonable seems to be the version according to which the creation of Stonehenge was planned by the Royal family at least in the early 19th century, probably with the aim of "aging" their family and the history of England.
For this, the legend about the wizard Merlin, who created Stonehenge with magic, was used as a base, and historical "artifacts" were created around the legend in the form of "Stonehenge sketches" (they are all very different and their authenticity is easy to refute), novels (Tess from the d'Erberville family) and early 19th century photographs.
The people who participated in the creation of the "artifacts" received high distinctions from the royal family. For example, Thomas Hardy, the author of the aforementioned novel, from an unknown son of a stonecutter and an illiterate mother, became a Knight of the Order of Merit, established by the King of England. The author of a series of the earliest photographs, Sir Henry James, an officer in His Majesty's army, received the title of sir from the royal family for the creation of the "photozincography" technology, a kind of black and white "19th century Photoshop".
The production of artifacts continues today. In 2006, the media reported that the earliest drawing of Stonehenge was found - in the "Scala Mundi" manuscript from 1440.
Here's a quote from that article:
"The small drawing shows the trilithons - the largest stones of the monument, each consisting of two columns topped with a third stone, standing in a circle in the shape of a horseshoe.
In the Chronicle of the World, it is said that Merlin erected Stonehenge between 480 and 486. The Latin text says that he "not by force, but by art, brought and erected a ring of giants from Ireland."
Perhaps there was a certain structure at this place, and maybe it, among other things, was tied to the winter and summer solstice. But all the "ultra-precise orientation in space" and the myth of the "ancient computer" of these stones were created by modern people.
In films from the cycle “Great Tartary. Only facts”we considered how the whole European history was rewritten in the 18th century. The goal was simple: to erase all memories of the Empire, that it stretched almost to the whole world: from the Great Wall of China and Kamchatka in the east, to the Mediterranean Sea in the West, including also the entire northwest of North America, which is clearly visible from the old maps. In return, for these lands it was necessary to come up with another "ancient history" of these countries, which is what the designers of modern Stonehenge were doing.