Did you know that the Pskov chroniclers, it turns out, were alternativeists? And this is many centuries before YouTube appeared! Can't believe it? Let's get a look. So, 7 alternative views on Russian history from the Pskov chroniclers.
But before that, a little help. The Pskov Chronicles, published in 1837 with the support of the Society of Russian History and Antiquities at Moscow University, by the famous Russian historian, collector, journalist and publicist Mikhail Petrovich Pogodin. Most of the ancient chronicles printed in the then spelling were provided by the Russian historian, archaeographer and manager of the Moscow Main Archive Nikolai Nikolaevich Bantysh-Kamensky.
The publisher Mikhail Pogodin noted in his book: "This list was written by me word for word, without the slightest cancellations and omissions." Elsewhere in the introduction, he writes: "It is not known when the first Pskov chronicler lived." From the preface it becomes clear that, according to the churchmen of the 19th century, he lived in the 14th century, that is, the events of Russian antiquity were written - at the earliest - in the 14th, and at the latest - in the 15th century, and were conducted until the middle of the 17th.
The Pskov Chronicles begin like this: "From the 7th Council to the last Council, to the translation of the holy books from the Greeks into the Slovenian language by the HOLY KIRILL THE PHILOSOPHER - about 77 years … And from the OFFER OF BOOKS to the baptism of the Russian land, about 70 years and summer." Firstly, here we are talking only about the translation, that is, the TRANSLATION of the sacred books of the Greeks into the Slavic language. There is not a word about the creation of the alphabet. Secondly, the dates do not coincide with the official ones.
In different places of the so-called “first list” of the Pskov chronicles, the dates of the same events differ. This nonsense occurs because dating is far-fetched - in hindsight. How it was done, we tell in the video "Antiquity was not." And in general: where did Methodius, Cyril's colleague, go? And why do we say “Cyrillic” and not “Methodica”? Because there was no Methodius as a living person. Most likely, Methodius is the second name of the aforementioned philosopher, given, for example, at baptism, or something like a nickname, because the name Methodius means “methodical”, “ordered”, that is, it is a synonym for diligence.
It turns out that the Horde established the rulers in Russia not before the notorious Battle of Kulikovo, but much … much longer. For example, Vasily II, nicknamed the Dark One, argued for a long time with Dmitry Shemyaka for the right to take the throne. The dismantling was painful and long. But historians do not specify that both princes beat the great khan with their foreheads so that he figured out and chose one or the other. But this, for a second - the 15th century, the Battle of Kulikovo is long over. In the Pskov Chronicle, we read an entry from 1431: “The same summer, Prince Great Vasily Vasilyevich went to the Horde to the Tsar's reign for the Great on the Russian land (that is, the Great Khan was a tsar, emperor of Russia), and went to the Assumption of the Holy Mother of God (now it is August 28) with gifts of many. And after him the Great Prince Yuri Dmitrievich went to the Horde to the Tsar's reign for the sake of the great, and on his way to the Exaltation of the Honorable Cross (that is, in a month) many gifts were given”.
Both princes, and both Great, and both with bribes for the king, that is, the emperor. Who will give more. June-July 1432 came. And what do we see? Both princes return from the Horde without receiving the go-ahead. In our video about the book of the Austrian ambassador Sigismund Herberstein, we told that according to this source, neither the Battle of Kulikovo nor the standing on the Ugra deprived the Tatars of direct political influence on the life of the Russian state, and even in the first half of the 16th century, the political center of Russia was located in Horde.
And the duration of the Moscow journey of 12 months tells us that the Grand Dukes traveled several thousand kilometers to their Tsar. For comparison, here is a schematic map called "The Path of Muscovy to Katay", compiled by the British in 1598 (published in 1677). It contains a detailed description of the route, which is marked with the words: “Muscovites usually work 9 months on the way from Katay”. Did the great Moscow princes travel along this road to the Katay region, or rather, to the city of Khanbalyk, to the court of the great khan?
An important message can be found in the Pskov Chronicles that in 1625, during the reign of the first Romanovs, there was a major flood from Western and Eastern Europe to Greece.