Table of contents:
- Germanic and Scandinavian runes
- Anglo-Saxon or Frisian runes
- Turkic runes
- Khazar and Hungarian runes
- Bulgarian runes
- East European runes
- Slavic runes
- Ancient non-runic alphabets
Video: Sacred runes and writing of the ancient peoples of the Earth
2023 Author: Seth Attwood | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 22:42
I started my study not with runes, but with ancient alphabets of different peoples, but I drew attention to the fact that many (all?) Ancient alphabets are very reminiscent of runes. And that the runes of different (?) Peoples are also surprisingly similar to each other. The most ancient are Germanic runes.
Germanic and Scandinavian runes
“Futhark is the general name for the Germanic and Scandinavian runic alphabets. The word comes from the "through" reading of the first six letters of the senior runic alphabet: f, u, þ, a, r, k. Usually, this word denotes any runic alphabets, regardless of the people who used this or that modification. However, for some reason, the ancient Germanic runic alphabet is called "senior futark", and the rest are called lower alphabets. " A source
This is what the ancient Germanic or older futhark looks like:
Are they very different from the runes of the Goths, which were Slavs?
What, for example, Mavro Orbini writes about:
Several stones with ancient Germanic runic inscriptions have survived to this day. One of them:
While researching references to Stonehenge in the sources of past centuries, I also found a mention of runic inscriptions. But there they were called, not Germanic, but Gothic. An excerpt from the book "Sketches of historical architecture: in the images of various famous buildings, antiquities and foreign peoples, from history books, commemorative coins, ruins, with the addition of true descriptions for visualization", published in 1725:
“An amazing rock structure in England is called Stonehenge, Giant Chorea or Dance of the Giants.
It is located not far from Sarisburg, on a plain where stones of great height are located, which stand vertically against each other and carry other large stones from above, which are laid on them in the form of a crossbar, forming a kind of portal. This structure is not as surprising in the size of the stones as in its composition.
First of all, I see that these are monuments of an era about which we know nothing. But those who mistake them for other monuments than burials are easy to return when reflecting on the earliest forms of Gothic tombs surrounded by stone tiers, which we see in Swedish engravings and images of tombstones made by the Dane Worm. Another stone circle near Oxford, called the Rollright Stones (correct stone circle), confirms this truth. Camden, Britain"
The Dane Ole Worm mentioned here (1588 -1655) was a physician, collector and naturalist. Here are his prints:
Hunnestad- means the city of the Huns. Apparently, then the Goths and the Huns did not differ much from each other. Both those and others were Slavs. Official information about the tombstones described by Ole Worm:
“The Hunnestad Monument was once located in Hunnestad, Marsvinsholm, northwest of Ystad, Sweden. It was the largest and most famous of the Viking Age monuments in Scania and Denmark, comparable only to the Jelling stones. The monument was destroyed in the late 18th century by Eric Ruut of Marswinsholm, probably between 1782 and 1786, when the estate was undergoing extensive modernization, although the monument has survived long enough to be documented and depicted.
When the antique dealer Ole Worm examined the monument, it consisted of 8 stones. Five of them had images, and two also had runic inscriptions. In the 18th century, all stones were moved or destroyed. To date, only three of these stones remain, they are exhibited in the Museum of Culture in Lund."
Here is one of the remaining stones:
And the stone mentioned here from the city of Jelling:
It is located in the center of a complex of mounds, excavated at different times, and they are mistaken for the tombs of Danish kings.
Anglo-Saxon or Frisian runes
“Anglo-Saxon runes have their origin in old Futhark, but later they were used in Friesland in what is now northwest Germany, where the Saxons lived 400 years before they immigrated and occupied the British Isles. The "Anglo-Saxon runes" are therefore often called "Anglo-Frisian runes". The language of Anglo-Saxon inscriptions must be both Old Frisian and Old English..
Anglo-Saxon runic inscriptions are found along the coast from present-day Friesland in northwestern Germany to the Netherlands, as well as in England and Scotland."
How they were able to distinguish Anglo-Saxon from Celtic is not very clear to me. Here is what the English themselves write about the Celtic language:
“During the 1st millennium BC, Celtic languages were spoken throughout most of Europe and Asia Minor. Today they are limited to the northwestern outskirts of Europe and a few diaspora communities. There are four living Celtic languages: Welsh, Breton, Irish, and Scottish Gaelic. They are all minority languages in their respective countries, although revitalization efforts continue. Welsh is the official language in Wales, while Irish is the official language of Ireland and the European Union. Welch is the only Celtic language not classified as endangered by UNESCO."
Welsh or Welsh from Pantography; containing exact copies of all known alphabets in the world , published in 1799:
One of the finds with a runic inscription in England:
Runes were used not only in Europe, but also in Asia:
Khazar and Hungarian runes
The Khazar runes are also Turkic. Wikipedia writes that no texts in the Khazar language were found, but I found the Khazar alphabet on a site called Omniglot - an online encyclopedia focused on languages and writing systems, founded in 1998 by linguist Simon Ager. not all online encyclopedias are present, but many ancient alphabets, including the Khazar:
As an example of the text of these runes, there is the Achik-Tash inscription:
Achik-Tash is located on the northern slopes of the Altai ridge. In an article on Khazar runes on the Omniglot website, it is written that the Khazar language is believed to be a descendant of the Proto-Rovian script, which was used east of the Aral Sea between the 1st and 6th centuries AD. tribes living there, including the Avars, Khazars and Ogurs before they moved to the Carpathian basin. And they began to be called Hungarians there.
“Hungarian runes (Hungarian rovás írás, literally: carved letter) is a runic script used by the Hungarians until the beginning of the 11th century, when the first Christian king Istvan I introduced the Latin alphabet.
Hungarian runes have nothing to do with Germanic runes, but come from the ancient Türkic Orkhon writing and were not related to the Bulgarian runes. The theory widespread in modern Hungarian science says that the Avar steppe runes could have been the immediate predecessors of the Hungarian runes."
The only possible example of Khazar or Hungarian runic writing is this inscription on a stone at Mihai Vitazu, Cluj (Transylvania, today Romania):
“The stone was an ancient Roman building stone, as evidenced by the leaf symbol, a frequently used decorative element in ancient Roman inscriptions, reused in the 10th century. Alsoszentmihaly, located on the territory of the late province of Dacia (in which the Slavs also previously lived - my note), existed until the middle of the 3rd century. Den showed that the Hawars (Khazar rebels joined the Hungarians in the 9th century) probably settled in this region (Transylvania at the time). This inscription is unambiguously written in the Khazar runic alphabet"
About the Bulgarian runes mentioned in the text. This is how they look:
“Bulgarian runes - the runic writing of the Proto-Bulgarians (Bulgars, ancient Bulgarians), was used in the VI-X centuries, for some time - in the Balkans in parallel with the Cyrillic alphabet. In parallel, the Proto-Bulgarians in the Black Sea region and the Volga Bulgars used the so-called Don-Kuban writing, which is not directly related to the Bulgarian runes."
East European runes
Information about these runes is taken from the book of the Russian historian and archaeologist Igor Leonidovich Kyzlasov "Runic writing of the Eurasian steppes", 1994. editions.
The map of the found runic inscriptions given in this book:
I. L. Kyzlasov identified three groups of monuments of this runic writing: a - Don letter, b - Kuban letter, c - Don-Kuban letter.
I didn't notice too much difference between these alphabets.
Orkhon is in Mongolia and Talas is in Kyrgyzstan. I also don't see much difference between these alphabets.
A small (or large?) Incident happened with the Slavic runes. The fact is that Slavic writing is considered hypothetical:
“The pre-Christian writing of the Slavs (pre-Cyrillic writing) is a hypothetical writing (possibly runic) that existed, according to some researchers, among the ancient Slavs before their Christianization during the mission of Cyril and Methodius and the creation of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic scripts.
From the middle of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, it was reported several times about the discovery of evidence of Slavic writing, the original system of inscriptions (stones from Mikozhin, idols from Prillwitz and the so-called Velesova Book). These conclusions were determined by analogy with the Germanic writing, called Slavic runes.
However, independent, devoid of ideology, scientific research proved that all such finds were either finds other than Slavic origin, mainly of Turkish origin (the so-called Turkish rune), or fake (made for profit or for patriotic reasons).
However, there is a group of scientists, mostly Russians, including prof. Valery Chudinov, who departed from the well-trodden historical research, challenging, in their opinion, too hasty statement about the falsity of all evidence of the truthfulness of the runic Slavic writing.
However, the final overthrow of the Slavic runic theory did not fully determine the existence of Slavic writing. Although there is still no substantial evidence of its existence, there is some evidence that indirectly indicates that the Slavs had some kind of information storage system. However, it is unclear whether this system, if it existed at all, was the same for the entire Slavic region, or whether certain types of writing developed in its individual parts."
In my research, I came across the fact that throughout Eurasia, in its different corners, there are approximately the same runes, but they are attributed to anyone, only not the Slavs. For example, runic inscriptions found on the territory of Eastern Europe, Doctor of Philology O. A. Mudrak (what an interesting surname) ascribes to…. Ossetians:
“Report of the Doctor of Philology. Sciences OA Mudrak "The Language and Texts of the East European Runic", with which he spoke at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, became an event among archaeologists and linguists. The report presented the decoding and translation of the runic inscriptions of the monuments found on the territory of Eastern Europe - from the Dnieper and the Caucasus to the Volga region. Reading these inscriptions led to unexpected conclusions regarding the language of everyday and official writing of the peoples living on this territory. The decoding revealed their closeness to the Digor version of the Proto-Ossetian language and only partially to the Nakh languages."
I could not find examples of Ossetian runes. Here is what Wikipedia writes about the Ossetian writing:
“Ossetian writing is a written language used to record the Ossetian language. During its existence, it has changed its graphic basis several times and has been reformed several times. Currently, the Ossetian writing system functions in the Cyrillic alphabet.
There are five stages in the history of Ossetian writing:
before 1844 - early experiments in creating writing based on the Cyrillic and Georgian letters;
1844-1923 - the Sjogren-Miller alphabet based on the Cyrillic alphabet;
1923-1938 - writing based on the Latin alphabet;
1938-1954 - parallel coexistence of writing based on Cyrillic and Georgian letters;
since 1954 - writing based on the Cyrillic alphabet."
It is believed that the word "rune" means "secret":
"Old Norse and Anglo-Saxon run, Old Norse runar and Old German runa are associated with the Germanic root ru and the Gothic runa, meaning" secret, "and Old German runen (modern raunen), meaning" to whisper mysteriously. " This name, apparently, is due to the fact that the ancient Germans attributed some mystical properties to the runes."
To me, this version of the origin of the name of the runes seems illogical, because even according to the official version, the runic letter came from the Etruscan alphabet, which was not secret at all. In addition, if the runes are a secret letter, then where is the ordinary letter? He's gone. There are two rivers in Russia with the name "Runa". One Runa is a tributary of the Pola, flows in the Novgorod region.
"On the banks of the river are the villages of the Velilsky rural settlement: Runitsy, Gorshok, Skagorodye, Luchki, Yastrebovshchina, Andreevschina, Sedlovshchina, the village of Velily - the center of the settlement, Yam, Zarechye, Ovsyanikovo (between Runa and Pola), Vyoshki."
The second rune takes place in the Tver region. “Along the course of the river are the settlements of the Chaikinsky rural settlement - the villages of Bitukha, Zaroyevo and Runo.” A source
Fleece used to be called wool from one sheep, as well as a fish school:
"RUNO, pl. rune. Sheep wool (book poet.). Thin r. Golden R. || Wool sheared from one sheep (obsolete). Ten runes. 2. pl. rune and rune. Heap, flock, school (mainly about fish; region, special). The herring walks in runes or runes."
And also Perun here or not? The meaning of the word PERUN:
1.the name of the Slavic god of thunder
2. is outdated. poet. arrow, lightning, cast down by the god of thunder and war
3. Mn. h. is outdated. poet. symbolic designation of warriors, battles, battle sounds
There are runes that resemble both arrows and lightning. So there is no mystery in this? Or looking for whom. This is how the modern interpretation of Slavic runes looks like:
They are also called lines and cuts. This name is mentioned in the "Tale of the letters" by Chernorizets the Brave:
“Before, after all, the Slavs did not have letters, but they read by lines and cuts, they guessed with them, being filthy. Having been baptized, they tried to write Slavic speech without dispensation in Roman and Greek letters."
The Slavs did not have letters, but in the Slavic language there is the word "letter" and the word "letter". And the Slavs will never call a letter a letter, but a letter a letter. Such as, in english letter = letter; character; char.
Letter = letter; letter; message; diploma; erudition, and many more meanings
Character = reputation; written recommendation; characteristic; figure; personality; image; hero; a type; role (in the drama); actor; characteristic feature; distinctive feature; quality; property; letter; letter; hieroglyph; number; alphabet; letter; sign; character
Char = day-to-day; smth. charred; firebrand; charred; leftovers; charcoal; chore; day work; something charred; smth. charred; burning; char (fish); sign (abbreviated from character); symbol; number; letter; visiting cleaning lady; cleaning lady (abbreviated from charwoman); chaise; excursion open car;
French letter = caractère; lettre with about the same meaning as in English
Italian letter = carattere; lettera, a similar meaning.
Spanish letter = caràcter; letra; tipo
The exception is German. In it, letter = letter (litera), and letter = letter (schrift, from writing - schreiben, by the way it looks like Russian: skrebsti (pen).
Ancient non-runic alphabets
But I will return to where I started: the idea of runes was pushed to me by the appearance of ancient alphabets that do not belong to runic ones. For instance:
That alphabet is named Lugansk because it was found in the city…. Do not be alarmed, no, not in Luhansk, but in Lugano - a city in Switzerland. He is also called a lepontic:
« Lepontik is an ancient alpine Celtic, spoken in parts of Rhetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC. Lepontic is attested in inscriptions found in the region centered in Lugano, Switzerland, and including the Lake Como region and Lake Maggiore Italy.
The lepontic was first adopted by the Gauls with the settlement of the Gaulish tribes north of the Po River, and then by the Latins after the Roman Republic gained control of Cisalpine Gaul at the end of the 2nd and 1st centuries BC."
Finding examples of ancient Greek writing was not easy. It actually turned out to be the Mycenaean Linear script. One of the found clay tablets with this letter:
Probably the only example of ancient Latin writing is this inscription, made on the walls of a kernos (a ceramic vessel of unknown purpose). For comparison, there is an Etruscan inscription next to it. As the saying goes: feel the difference:
All examples, except for the Etruscan alphabet, are taken from the Omniglot site mentioned above. I have arranged them approximately in the order of their occurrence, as described in the book of the Irish herald and antiquarian of English origin William Betham William Betham (1779-1853) "Etruria-Celtica: Etruscan Literature and Studied Antiquities", and other sources about which I will tell in the next article. And also that the Phoenicians - Etruscans - Celts-Gauls were ONE people, according to the description of these sources. And these statements are based not only on the general writing, but also on the basis of general mythology (or better to say the worldview?), Culture, found artifacts.
Found information that the description of Slavic runes was FIRSTLY given in the book by Anton Platov "Slavic Runes" 2001.
Glancing over his book, I stared at the following phrase:
"Most of the 'conventional Russian' rune names owe their origin to the work of Ralph Blum, for a long time the most popular book on runes in Russia (The Book of Runes)."
I decided to look for this book, but unexpectedly came out to another. Typing "Runes" in search, he gave me "Sammlung russischer Geschichte" (Collection of Russian history), written by Miller, published in 1732-1764, consisting of 9 volumes, each volume about 600-700 pages. All volumes can be viewed on the website of the GPIB electronic library, however, only in German.
I remember, while researching Miller's works, I found out that only a small part of them was translated into Russian. Based on the material that was nevertheless translated, it was concluded that the history of Russia was falsified by Miller. But how many people have read its original, about 6,000 pages in size? What information about Russian history is stored there? But in this case, it is not this that is important, but the fact that the search engine associated the runes with Russian history, while officially Russian runes do not seem to exist …
In the design of the article, a photograph of a detail of the front panel of Frank's casket, made of a whalebone with runes carved on it, was used. Considered the most significant of the early Anglo-Saxon runic monuments, it is kept in the British Museum.
An introduction to the wonderful world of colophonists. What is it, what are their origins, how they were discovered and why all this is not just that … Two parts of the video lecture by Sergei Ivanov. For those who are interested, the conversation can be continued :) On the splash screen of the publication - the author's colologue "Shaman's Star"
South Ural local historian Yuri Zavyalov made the first archaeological finds in his garden. This is how his fascination with history was born. Now the ethnographer zealously defends his hypotheses, according to which the ancient South Ural was no less interesting place than Sumer or Greece
Even the official Western scientific world creakily admits that the Celts, who were a Slavic people, were not savages, but had a highly developed culture. Here are their words: "You will have to part with the image of the Celts as dumb barbarians from the comic" Asterix and Obelix "once and for all"
I have already written about the finds in Siberia of the 17th century and about the destroyed cities of Dauria according to the descriptions of Nikolaas Witsen from his book "Northern and Eastern Tartary". But there is also such an album by GI Spassky: "Album of views, drawings of buildings and ancient inscriptions in Siberia"
In well-known circles, it is customary to call Russia and the Soviet Union the prison of peoples. But in fact, the opposite is true. And it's easy to check