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The geometry of the star fortress in the Rostov region received an explanation
The geometry of the star fortress in the Rostov region received an explanation

The earthen fortress of St. Anna, located in the Rostov region, is a unique fortification structure that has survived to this day in such a good condition. If you look at the monument of defensive architecture of the 18th century. from the ground - you will not notice anything remarkable. But if you look at it from a bird's eye view, there will be no limit to surprise. This is due to its unusual, as for this kind of structures, forms that have given rise to many legends and incredible stories.

1. Why was the fortress of St. Anne built in this place?

Anninskaya fortress is the only earthen fortification object preserved on the territory of Russia (Rostov region)

The fortress of St. Anna (Anninskaya fortress) is an earthen defensive structure of Russia, recognized as a Cultural Heritage Site of Federal significance, located 3 km from Starocherkasskaya stanitsa. This location is due to the fact that in the north-east of the Rostov region there are Vasilievsky hills, which have natural protection. The Don and Vasilyevka rivers run from the south and east, respectively, from the north - hills, and from the west flows a small rivulet with a fortified redoubt at its confluence with the Don.

2. Why was the earthen fortification called the fortress of St. Anne

To protect the southern lands of the state, the fortress of St

To strengthen the southern outpost of Russian lands, it was decided to start building a fortress in this region (this is the version that is considered official). For these purposes, two highly qualified specialists in the design of fortification structures were sent to Cherkassk at once - General Engineer Peter de Brigny and then Colonel De Culong. Thanks to their research, they decided on the place of construction of the earthen fortress, although de Brigny was categorically against just such a location (this was confirmed after some time).

An earthen fortress near Starocherkasskaya stanitsa was named in honor of Empress Anna Ioannovna and her Saint

Interesting fact from Novate.Ru:Anna Ioannovna (1693-1740) - All-Russian Empress from the Romanov dynasty was the niece of Peter I. To strengthen her position in Courland (a duchy in the west of present-day Latvia), her uncle married her to Duke Friedrich Wilhelm, but in 2, 5 months 17-year-old Anna became a widow. By the will of fate and by secret decision of the representatives of the powerful clans of Russia, in 1730 she ascended the throne.

One of her first orders, which she signed when she was already an empress, was a decree on the construction of a defensive structure on Rostov land. By her own decision, she named the fortress in honor of the Holy Prophetess Anna.

3. Hidden reasons for the construction of the Anninskaya fortress

This is how modern scriptwriters and decorators of the film "Ataman" represent the arrangement of the territory of the Anninskaya fortress

We have already familiarized ourselves with the main version, but there were other equally compelling reasons for the construction of a defensive structure on Rostov land. At that time, there were constant threats from the Crimean Khanate and Turkey, and for this reason, the border areas from the mainland were tried to be used to the fullest. Thanks to the Anninskaya fortress, it was possible to strengthen the front line of the deployment of Russian troops in the Crimean and Turkish directions. And as history has shown, it played an important role in the Russian-Turkish war of 1735-1739, acting as a support base for the main military forces that participated in this campaign.

Shafts of the earthen fortress St

Another very important function was performed by the commandant of the Anninskaya fortress with his garrison - control over the "behavior of the Cossacks". Everyone knows that the Cossacks were a free and willful people and were not used to coordinating their actions with the supreme leadership.For this reason, the commandant of this fortress was appointed the chief commander of the atamans of the Don army, who obeyed him and were obliged to report on their plans. And he, in turn, transmitted this information to the capital, but often the atamans ignored both the authorities and the commandant, so very often the head of the outpost had to write denunciations. And immediately after them, all the liberties of the Cossack chieftain were suppressed in the bud, because even the tsars were afraid of such a powerful force.

4. Construction of the Anninskaya fortress

Map of the location of the fortress of St

Two regiments took part in the construction of the fortification - Vyborg and Ryazan. Since it was planned that it would be purely earthen, it was necessary not only to dig deep ditches up to 4 m, but also to raise wide, gentle ramparts from 5 to 6 m in height. Naturally, there was not enough land taken from the dug ditch, and for these purposes, the soil from the Vasilievsky hillocks was additionally used, which had to be moved.

Thorns still grow in some places (Anninskaya fortress)

To this day, thorny thorns grow in some places (Anninskaya fortress). Š¼

The complexity of the work was that fortifications were erected on sandy soil, which were constantly flooded and had to be rebuilt. And this is a rather significant section, given that the length of the perimeter of the fortification rampart is 2 km. To get out of the situation, one of the creators of the project, a military engineer, Colonel De-Culong, suggested planting a thorn bush at the foot of the rampart, which in a fairly short time strengthened the earth and became a rather effective means of defense.

The decorators and artists of the film "Ataman" tried to correspond to the era and time (Anninskaya fortress)

After the earthen fence was created and the redoubts were strengthened with bricks, they began to arrange the territory, which turned out to be quite impressive - 50, 2 hectares. In a fairly short time, the following were built: the necessary office premises, barracks, a brick house for the commandant, a powder magazine, food warehouses and a wooden Church of the Intercession. The forest for some buildings and additional fortifications had to be floated down the Don from Voronezh. As usual, a settlement (settlement) appeared near the fortress, which initially served as a camp for soldiers, and when they were transferred to the barracks, merchants and peasants began to build, providing the soldiers with food.

5. What does the geometry of the created shafts of the Anninsky fortress say?

Fortress St

Looking at the picture of the Anninskaya fortress from the sky, its outlines are surprising and it is difficult for an ignorant person to determine why this is so. Those who like to think about the supernatural and look for subtext in everything claim that this is a special sign of ancient civilization, well, at worst, a coded eastern hieroglyph.

Almost 3 centuries have passed, and the outlines of the earthen ramparts are still visible (Anninskaya fortress)

Oddly enough, but some connoisseurs were right, the shape in the form of a regular hexagon in the outlines of the main wall of the fortress is indeed an ancient sign meaning acceptance under patronage. In other words, with this emblem of "patronage and protection", a kind of seal of the Russian State on the Don land, they tried to introduce the free Cossacks to the Great State and show their loyalty.

6. Military history

Fights near Azov (1736-1737, Crimean-Turkish campaign)

After the main fortification was made, the fortress of St. Anna became part of the rather impressive Ukrainian defensive line. At that time, it consisted of 15 fortresses, which were located between the Don and the Dnieper. Literally in 6 years of construction and arrangement, the fortress was able to accommodate already large military units. So, for example, in 1736-1737. (Crimean-Turkish campaign) it became the stronghold of the army of Field Marshal Lassie, which numbered from 55 to 60 thousand people.

Illustration from the book of A.K

After the end of the war and the withdrawal of troops to Azov, the fortress served as a food base and an ammunition depot, several times the regiments returned to its territory, but by 1761 it was decided to move the outpost to another place and a new fortress was laid there - Dmitry of Rostov. The functions of the Anninskaya fortress were eventually limited to trade.

7. Peaceful life of the fortress of St.Anna

Layout of objects on the territory of the earthen fortress St

It was the construction of the new fortress that predetermined the fate of the Anninsky fortification. Constant flooding, lack of demand as a military facility led to the fact that the trading people decided to use its territory and buildings as a timber exchange. In the steppe, near its ramparts, the first Cherkasy fairground was created. Over time, trade also fell into decay, but there was a need to treat sick Cossacks with leprosy, so leper colony was built on the territory of the fortress. But by the end of the 19th century. and the medical and isolation buildings were decided to close, and the fortress of St. Anne was simply abandoned.

On the territory of the fortress of St

Due to the fact that the fortress never took part in battles, but was only a support object for the advancing troops, it has been perfectly preserved to this day. Now the remains of the fortification belong to the branch of the Starocherkassk Museum-Reserve. At the end of the last century, this entire historical complex was recognized as a Cultural Heritage Site of Federal significance, as a monument of the military-defensive architecture of Russia in the 18th century. And despite the fact that only small hills and the outline of a hexagon remained from the former power and glory, lovers of antiquity often visit this attraction, especially since the entrance is free.

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