A well-known Russian historian, a leading specialist in the history of Ancient Rus, chronicle studies, the history of social thought, the author of many books on Russian history and the methodology of historical knowledge.
Below is a list of historical information from foreign sources about Russia and the Rugs (in the first millennium) compiled by the professor.
1. 1st century.Tacitus (c. 55-120) mentions swearson the southern coast of the Baltic.
2. II-III centuries. Jordan (VI century) reports on the struggle of the Goths in the Baltic States with swears, who were stronger than the Germans "in body and spirit" and nevertheless were defeated by the Goths.
3. Between 307-314. In the Verona Document swears named among the Roman federates.
4. Until 337. The Byzantine writer of the first half of the 14th century, Nicephorus Grigora, mentions Russian prince, who held a court position under the Emperor Constantine.
5. Second half of the 4th century. Jordan is mentioned as part of the state of Germanarich horns and then talks about the tribe rosomonov (or rosomonov), out of obedience.
6. Between 379-395. The Book of Degrees (XVI century) speaks of “the battle with Russian voi "Emperor Theodosius. The information was borrowed, apparently, from the life of the Egyptian Ivan the Hermit, mentioned here. The attack is also mentioned here. rusov to the "Selunsky grad". The news goes back to the Life of Dmitry Solunsky.
7. 434-435 years. Rouge appear on the Sava River near the city of Novieduna (present-day Yugoslavia), where they come into conflict with the Goths.
8. 454 year. Part swears joined the Huns and together with them was defeated by the Gepids and the tribes on their side, including most of the Rugs. The defeated retreated from the Danube to the Dnieper and the Black Sea, and partially retreated to the Adriatic coast. Some swears, according to Jordan, received places for settlements in cities adjacent to Constantinople.
9. 469 year. Rouge are defeated by the Goths in the fight for Pannonia.
10. 476 year. Odoacer (according to Jordan - swear, according to other sources - skirr) at the head of an army consisting of swears, Skirr, Turkilings, overthrew the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. In the later tradition, it is called Russian prince, Herul from the island of Rügen, a Slavic prince. His descendants will rule in Styria, and in the 12th century also in the Duchy of Austria. A clan and some Bohemian surnames originated from Odoacer.
11. The year 487. Odoacer captured the king swears Feleteya and his mother Gizu and executed them in Ravenna for attempting to invade Italy at the instigation of the Byzantine emperor Zeno.
12. The year 488. Odoacer defeated Feletey's nephew Frederic and ravaged his possessions in the Danube. Frederick fled to the King of the Goths Theodoric.
13. The year 489. Theodoric opposed Odoacer. Rouge is in that and in the other army.
14. 493 year. Theodoric treacherously killed Odoacer. Rouge Frederica took part in the proclamation of Theodoric king of Italy.
15. Mid-6th century. Rugi (horns) for some time they seized power in Italy, elevating their leader Erarich to the royal table.
16. 568 year. The Avars occupied Pannonia, and the Lombards passed through Rugiland to Northern Italy.
17. VI century. Syrian author Pseudo-saccharius mentions the people grew up in the Black Sea region.
18. VI century. The historian of the beginning of the XI century, as-Sa'alibi, in his story about the construction of the Derbent wall by Khosrov I (531-579), along with the Turks and the Khazars rusov.
19. VI century. The Caspian author of the 15th century Zahir ad-din Mar'ashi mentions rusov in the North Caucasus region.
20. 626 year. Byzantine poet Constantine Manassi (XII century) calls Russians among those who besieged Constantinople together with the Avars.
21. 643 year. The Arabic author at-Tabari (838-923) twice calls rusov as enemies of the world, especially the Arabs.
22. 765 (or 773) year. The Byzantine chronicler Theophano (d. 817) mentions Russian helandia (ships). The Normanists read the Greek "ta rousia" as "red."
23. 773-774 years. The French poem about Ogier the Dane (XII-XIII centuries) mentions Russian count Erno, who led the Russian detachment that defended Pavia - the capital of the Lombards - from the army of Charlemagne. In Northern Italy, the Rus occupied the Garda region near Verona (the Scandinavians called Eastern Russia "Gards").
24. OK. 778 years old. "The Song of Roland" (records of the XII-XIV centuries) calls rusov among the opponents of the Frankish army. Mentioned also "Russian raincoats".
25. End of VIII - beginning of IX century. In the poem by Renaud de Monteban (late XII - early XIII century), among the entourage of Charlemagne is named Russian count.
26. In the poem "Sesn" (late 12th century) Russian giant Fierabras is on the side of Gyteklen-Vidukind of Saxony against Charlemagne. "Fierabras from Russia "- a giant" with a beautiful mane of light brown and curly hair, a reddish beard and a scarred face."
27. In the poem "Fierabras" (second half of XII - early XIII century) - the hero Fierabras, son of the Emir Balan, - the king of Alexandria and Babylon, as well as the ruler of Cologne and Rus … Once captured, he becomes a loyal servant of Charlemagne.
28. In the poem "Flooan" 12 peers of Charlemagne, being in captivity, beat the Saracen leaders and Russian king.
29. In the poem "Folk from Candia" (XII century) Ganita the Beautiful got her lot Rus and "amoravians". In the absence of her father, she surrenders the city to the Franks and is baptized.
30. End of the 8th century. In the Life of Stefan Surozhsky it is mentioned Russian prince Bravlin. The name of the prince, perhaps, comes from Bravalla, during which in 786 a great battle took place between the Danes and the Frisians. The Frisians were defeated, and many of them left their country, moving to the east.
31. End of the 8th century. The Bavarian geographer calls rusov next to the Khazars, as well as some dew (Rotses) somewhere in the interfluve of the Elbe and Sala: Attoros, Viliros, Hoziros, Zabros.
32. VIII-IX centuries. Popes Leo III (795-816), Benedict III (855-858) and other table-holders sent special messages “ to the clerics of the horns ". Apparently, the Rugi communities (they were Arians) continued to keep themselves apart from the rest of the Christians.
33. 839 year. The Bertine annals report the arrival of representatives of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos to Louis I the Pious people grew, whose ruler bore the title of kagan.
34. Until 842. The life of Georgy Amastridsky reports on the attack dew to Amastrida (Asia Minor).
35. Between 836-847 years Al-Khwarizmi in a geographical composition mentions Russian mountain, from which the river Dr. mustache (Dnieper?). There is also news in a treatise from the second half of the 10th century (Khudud al-Alam), where it is specified that the mountain is located to the north of the "Inner Bulgarians".
36. 844 year. Al-Yakubi reports the attack rusov to Seville in Spain.
37. 844 year. Ibn Khordadbeh calls rusov type or genus of Slavs (two editions of his work are known).
38.18 June 860 years. Attack dew to Constantinople.
39. 861 year. Constantine-Cyril The philosopher, the future creator of the Slavic alphabet, discovered in the Crimea the Gospel and the Psalter, written in Russian letters, and, having met with a person who spoke this language, he mastered the spoken language and deciphered the writing.
40. IX century. According to the Persian historian Fakhr ad-din Mubarakshah (XIII century), the Khazars had a letter that came from the Russian. The Khazars borrowed it from the nearby living "branch of the Rumians" (Byzantines), whom they call russians … There are 21 letters in the alphabet, which are written from left to right, without the letter Aleph, as in the Aramaic or Syriac-Nestorian script. The Khazar Jews had this letter. Alans are believed to be called Russ in this case.
41. 863 year. The document confirming the previous award mentions Rusaramarch (Rusarov brand) on the territory of modern Austria.
42. OK. 867 year. Patriarch Photius announces baptism in his district epistle dew (area of residence is unknown).
43. OK. 867 year. The Byzantine emperor Basil, in a letter to Louis II, who accepted the title of emperor, applies the title of kagan, equal to the royal one, in relation to four peoples: Avars, Khazars, Bulgarians and Normans. The news is usually associated with the mention of the kagan among the Russians under the year 839 (see indication 33), as well as in a number of eastern and proper Russian sources.
44. OK. 874 years old. Rome's protege, Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople, sent a bishop to Rus.
45. 879 year. First mention Russian diocese Patriarchate of Constantinople, apparently located in the city of Russia in the Eastern Crimea.This diocese has existed until the 12th century.
46. 879 year. Baptism dew Emperor Basil (message of John Skilitsa).
47. Until 885. The Chronicle of Dalimila from the beginning of the 14th century names the Archbishop of Moravia Methodius Rusyn.
48. Until 894. The Czech chronicle of Pulkava at the end of the 14th century includes Polonia and Russia.
49. The historian of the middle of the 15th century, later Pope Pius II, Aeneas Sylvius speaks of the subordination of Svyatopolk Polonius to Rome, Hungaria (later Hungary, formerly the region of the Huns) and russans - rusov.
50. In the "Chronicle of the whole world" by Martin Velsky (16th century) and the chronograph of the Western Russian edition (16th century), it is said that Svyatopolk "kept Russian lands ". Svyatopolk Russian boyar "Baptized the Czech prince Borzhivoi.
51. The Czech chronicler Hagetius (d. 1552) recalls that Russia formerly part of the Moravian Kingdom.
52. A number of oriental authors retell the plot about Rus living on the island "in three days' journey" (about 100 km), whose ruler was called Khakan.
53. End of IX - beginning of X century … Al-Balkhi (c. 850-930) speaks of three groups rus: Cuyabe, Slavia, Arsania. The closest to Bulgar on the Volga is Kuyaba, the most distant is Slavia.
54. OK. 904 years old. The Raffelstetten trade charter (Austria) speaks of the Slavs coming "from Rougii ". Researchers usually choose between Rugiland on the Danube, Rugia in the Baltic and Kievan Rus.
55. 912-913 years. Hike rusov to the Caspian Sea from the Black Sea, noted by the Arab scientist Masudi (mid-10th century) and other eastern authors.
56. 921-922 years … Ibn Fadlan described rusov which he saw in Bulgar.
57. OK. 935 years … The charter of the tournament in Magdeburg names Velemir among the participants, Prince (princeps) Russian, as well as performing under the banner of the Duke of Thuringia Otto Redebotto, Duke of Russia and Wenceslas, Prince Rugia … The document was published among other Magdeburg acts by Melchior Goldast (17th century).
58. 941 year. Attack dew or rusov to Byzantium. The Greek authors Theophanes, the Successor of George Amartolus and Simeon the Magister (all mid-10th century) explain at the same time that the dews are "dromites" (that is, immigrants, migrants, fidgets) originating "from the Franks clan." In the Slavic translation of the Chronicle of George Amartol, the last phrase is translated as "from the Varangian clan." Lombard Liudprand (c. 958) wrote a story in which he called the Rus "the northern people", whom the Greeks "in appearance are called the Rus" (that is, "red"), and the inhabitants of Northern Italy "by their location Normans." In northern Italy, the people living north of the Danube were called "Normans"; in southern Italy, the Lombards themselves were identified with the northern Veneti.
59. Until 944. The 10th century Jewish-Khazar correspondence mentions “ Tsar of the Rus Khlgu ", who first attacked the Khazars, and then, at their instigation, under Roman Lakapin (920-944) went to the Greeks, where he was defeated by Greek fire. Ashamed to return to his country, Halegwa went to Persia (in another version - Thrace), where he died along with the army.
60. 943-944 years. A number of eastern sources close to the events speak of the campaign rusov to Berdaa (Azerbaijan).
61. 946 year. This year is dated a document in which the Baltic Sea is called “ by the sea of rugs ". A similar name is repeated in a document of 1150.
62. Between 948-952. Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentions Rus "Near" and "far", and also gives a parallel designation of the names of the Dnieper rapids in Russian and in Slavic.
63. 954-960 years. Rugged wounds act in alliance with Otto I, helping him in the conquest of the rebellious Slavic tribes. As a result, all the tribes living by the sea were conquered. " against Russia ". Similarly, Adam of Bremen and Helmold locate Rugov Islands as lying "against the land of the Wilts."
64. 959 year. Embassy to Otto I " queen of rugs helena » (Olga), not long before baptized by the Byzantine emperor Roman, with a request to send a bishop and priests. Libucius, a monk of the Mainz monastery, was appointed bishop in Russia. But Libucius died in 961.Instead, Adalbert was appointed, who made a trip to swears … The venture, however, ended in complete failure: the missionaries were driven out by the rulers. The message about these events is described by the so-called Continuer of Reginon, behind whom the researchers see Adalbert himself. In other chronicles instead of Rugia, Russia is called.
65. Mid-10th century. Masoudi mentions Russian river and Russian sea … In the view of Masudi, the Russian Sea - Pontus are connected with the Ocean Bay (Baltic Sea), and the Rus are called islanders, who rotate a lot on ships.
66. Second half of the 10th century. The Jewish collection of Josippon (Joseph ben Gorion), compiled in southern Italy, places rusov right on the coast of the Caspian Sea, and along the "Great Sea" - "Ocean" next to the Angles and Saxons. The confusion, apparently, was facilitated by the mention in the Caspian regions, in addition to the Rus, also of the Saksin people in a number of sources.
67. 965 year. Ibn Yakub visited the German (Holy Roman) Empire on a diplomatic mission and met with Otto I. rusov, which border in the east with the possessions of the Polish prince Meshko, as well as in the west, they attack the Prussians on ships.
68. 967 year. Pope John XIII with a special bull, which authorized the establishment of a Prague bishopric, prohibited the recruitment of priests from Russian and the Bulgarian people and worship in the Slavic language. The document is reproduced in the Chronicle of Kozma of Prague (c. 1125), and also by the Annalist Saxon (c. 1140).
69. 968 year. Adalbert was approved by the Magdeburg Archbishop. The letter recalls that he had previously traveled to swears.
70. 969 year … The Magdeburg annals name the inhabitants of the island of Rügen Russians.
71. 968-969 years. Ibn Hawqal and other oriental writers talk about the defeat russians Volga Bulgaria and Khazaria, after which the army rusov went to Byzantium and Andalusia (Spain). In the annals, these events are dated 6472-6473, which, according to the Constantinople era, should mean 964-965. But in the texts of the 10th century, another space era is often used, four years different from the Constantinople era, and therefore the chronicle indicates the same dates as the eastern sources. As for the campaigns in Spain, we could talk about other Russians.
72. 973 year. Lambert of Hersfeld (XI century) speaks of the arrival at the court of Otto II in Quedlinburg, among others and ambassadors rusov.
73. OK. 990-992 years … The document "Dagome yudeks" mentions the place Rousse adjacent to Prussia, and it is also indicated that the border Rus extends to Krakow. It can be about Rusyns, whose settlements in the Carpathians adjoined directly to Krakow.
74. 992 year. Annals of Hildesheim (XI century) mention the impending war of the Polish prince Boleslav with Russians.
75. Until 995. In the saga about Olav Tryggvason (lists of the XIII-XIV centuries), it is said about the stay of Olav on Rus at the court of Vladimir. Mentioned is his mother (or wife) the seer Allogy, obviously the historical Olga. This spelling of the name of the princess allowed the anti-Normanists of the last century to reject the Scandinavian etymology of the name (from Helga). According to the saga, Olav suggested to Vladimir the idea of adopting Christianity, which is practically the only argument of Catholic historians trying to ascribe to Rome the merit of the Christianization of Rus.
76. 997 year. In some lists of the Life of Adalbert, who died in Prussia, the murderers are called ruthenes, and instead of Prussia, Russia is called.
77. OK. 1002 years … The commentator of Adam of Bremen (about 1075) speaks of the subordination of Boleslav the Brave in alliance with Otto III (d. 1002) of all Slavonia, Russia and Prussia. Slavonia - Western Pomerania or all the lands of the Baltic Slavs.
78. 1008-1009 years. Bruno of Querfurt visited Kiev and gave a description of the trip in a letter to Henry II. After a trip to the Pechenegs, he went to the Prussians and was killed on the border of Prussia and Rus … In the Life of Romuald, written in 1040 by Peter Damiani, Bruno is mentioned as a missionary who baptized Rus.