Table of contents:
- 1. The oldest megalithic complex Gebekli Tepe in Turkey (9 millennium BC)
- 2. Tel-al-Caramel mound in Aleppo (8, 6 millennium BC)
- 3. Tower of Jericho in Palestine (8th millennium BC)
- 4. The ancient city of Chatal-Huyuk in the south of Turkey (7, 1 millennium BC)
- 5. The ancient settlement of Choirokitia in Cyprus (6 millennium BC)
- 6. The village of Durankulak in Bulgaria (5, 5 millennium BC)
- 7. Temple of Newgrange in Ireland (5, 2 millennium BC)
- 8. Bugon necropolis near the city of La Mot-Saint-Ere (built in 4, 7 - 3, 5 millennia BC)
- 9. Temple complex of Ggantiya on the island of Gozo (3rd, 7th millennium BC)
The construction of residential and religious buildings has been carried out since time immemorial. Although now you can still find unique buildings that are so old that even in the days of ancient civilizations they were considered artifacts. Despite the fact that the merciless time, natural disasters and wars have erased the trail of most prehistoric structures, but nevertheless, some structures have retained not only a recognizable appearance, they have not lost special significance even after millennia.
1. The oldest megalithic complex Gebekli Tepe in Turkey (9 millennium BC)
Gebekli Tepe is the oldest large-scale religious building of the Neolithic era on the planet (Turkey).
Göbekli Tepe (Gebekli Tepe) is a megalithic complex on the territory of Southeastern Anatolia (Turkey), which radically changed the centuries-old ideas of scientists about the past of mankind, in particular, about the early Neolithic of the Middle East and Eurasia.
The special historical value of the object was discovered quite recently, and it was also determined that this religious building was erected for several centuries in a row. At the moment, a circle with a diameter of 300 m has been freed from earth and sand, on which more than 200 stone columns and many slabs with carved drawings are located in a special way.
2. Tel-al-Caramel mound in Aleppo (8, 6 millennium BC)
The ancient kurgan Tel al-Karamel is a vivid evidence that our ancestors were much more developed than it was thought (Aleppo, Syria).
Tell Qaramel (Tel al-Qaramel) is a prehistoric mound located in the north of modern Syria, near Aleppo. Active archaeological excavations began in 1999, but were suspended with the outbreak of the civil war in 2007.
An international group of specialists led by Professor Ryszard F. Mazurowski at the University of Warsaw was able to find 5 round stone structures in the form of towers, ancient burials (the remains of 20 people), a rich collection of stone tools, simple household items and even jewelry from malachite and copper. The stone objects have perfectly preserved drawings depicting animals, people and various geometric patterns.
3. Tower of Jericho in Palestine (8th millennium BC)
The mysterious tower of Jericho is located in one of the oldest settlements in the world - in the village of Tel Jericho (Palestine).
The Tower of Jericho, found not far from the Dead Sea in Palestine, is a conical stone structure 8.5 meters high, with a diameter of 9 m at the base and 7 m at the top.Taking into account its venerable age (at least 10 thousand years!) it is not surprising that the boulders were unworked during construction, and 22 steps were carved into the walls 1.5 meters wide.
It is still unknown for what purpose the building was erected, which pushes scientists to a more thorough study of the object. Although for many years some researchers believed that it was a fortification, others suggest that it served as a kind of fence during floods. There is also a hypothesis that the Tower of Jericho was a place of worship and a symbol of power or wealth.
4. The ancient city of Chatal-Huyuk in the south of Turkey (7, 1 millennium BC)
Chat-Hawl-Hoi-Yook is a very large Neolithic "proto-city" (Turkey).
Digital visualization of life in one of the most ancient settlements on the planet.
Chat-Hawl-Hoi-Yook is the oldest settlement in the world, founded around 7100 BC. and existed for over a thousand years, has become a kind of archaeological snapshot in the history of mankind.
It is in it that the evolution of the community is clearly reflected, which began its development as nomadic hunter-gatherers, gradually turned into urban residents. Although in their case, such a metamorphosis led to a high population density and the emergence of diseases and high crime.
5. The ancient settlement of Choirokitia in Cyprus (6 millennium BC)
The Neolithic settlement of Khirokitia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (Cyprus).
Khirokitia is a Neolithic settlement in Cyprus, located near Larnaca, was founded as early as 5800 BC. e. A distinctive feature of this ancient settlement was that its inhabitants built round houses of adobe bricks, which they covered with flat stone roofs, they also dug pools in every courtyard, and people were buried right in the house - under the floor.
Interesting fact:The village itself, in which no more than 600 people lived, is completely surrounded by defensive walls, indicating that an early organized society already existed in it.
6. The village of Durankulak in Bulgaria (5, 5 millennium BC)
The ancient settlement of Durankulak on the shores of the lake of the same name belongs to the early stages of the Late Neolithic culture (Bulgaria).
The small village of Durankulak, located in northern Bulgaria, can boast that the first people appeared on its territory 7, 5 thousand years ago. This is evidenced by archaeological finds confirming that it was here that the first stone structures in Europe were located.
7. Temple of Newgrange in Ireland (5, 2 millennium BC)
The legendary Irish mound Newgrange is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Newgrange (Newgrange) - one of the oldest temple buildings in the world is located near Dublin (Ireland). Until now, scientists are lost in conjecture how the ancient astronomers were able to calculate the course of the luminary with such accuracy so that on the day of the winter solstice it illuminated the farthest underground chamber of Newgrange's tomb, passing through a window only 19 cm wide.
After a complete study of the found fragments of the corridor tomb, which served as a place of worship for the Sun, the most ancient shrine was restored. At the moment, the temple complex has a height of 13.5 m, and its diameter is 85 m.The underground tunnel leading to the ritual burial and decorated with stone slabs with drawings has a length of 19 m.
8. Bugon necropolis near the city of La Mot-Saint-Ere (built in 4, 7 - 3, 5 millennia BC)
The Bugon necropolis consists of 5 megalithic burial mounds, which have been well preserved to this day.
Cemetery Bougon (Tumulus of Bougon), located near the French town of La Mot-Saint-Ere, consists of 5 tombs of the Neolithic era, created over several centuries.
For this reason, each mound has its own architectural features and unique finds. To date, in the burial chambers of the Bugon necropolis, more than two hundred human skeletons, stone tools, household items made of stone and ceramics, elements of jewelry have been discovered, which have become proof that jewelry art existed in prehistoric times.
9. Temple complex of Ggantiya on the island of Gozo (3rd, 7th millennium BC)
Two of the oldest temples form the Ggantija Sanctuary (Gozo Island, Malta).
The Ggantija temple complex (Ggantija, also known as the "Tower of the Giants") is located on a 115 m high hill on the island of Gozo, off the coast of Malta.
According to archaeologists and researchers, the megalithic cult site of Ggantija, consisting of two temples, was a kind of Vatican of the Neolithic era, which became the center of the spiritual and secular life of the Maltese for many centuries, as well as an icon in religious construction. As it turned out, all subsequent religious structures on the island of Malta repeated the design features of the "Tower of the Giants".