We continue to summarize.
The events of the 17th century in the Baltic region were already different from the events of the 16th century and earlier. It got quiet enough. Over the entire 17th century, the water level in the Baltic decreased by no more than 10 meters, and most likely by 7-8 meters. Some meters were due to the growth of ice masses at the poles and a general decrease in the level of the world ocean, and some were due to the further rise of the Scandinavian shield. It is still rising, though very slowly. At the same time, the southern part of the Baltic, including in the Copenhagen zone, sank, which led to the effect of a tilted saucer. Ladoga and Baltika bent down and the Neva changed its direction of flow. Now the runoff went not to Ladoga and further along the Svir to Onega and the White Sea, but to the Atlantic. By the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, the Neva took shape as a river in its present form. At the same time, there was a period when the Baltic retreated, and Ladoga remained deep, and at some point there was a breakthrough at the site of the modern Ivanovskie rapids. For several decades, this place was something similar to the modern rapids in Losevo on Vuoksa. Shallow and with a hellish current - 8-10 meters per second. The gap gradually widened by streams of water, the strength of the stream decreased, but until the end of the 19th century, this section of the Neva was impassable for ships. The first attempts to clear the channel were in 1756 and 1820, but there was little sense. It became possible only to descend downstream of small boats. Navigable, and even then only for a certain type of ships, this section of the Neva became only in 1885 after large-scale dredging works. And the current state, in which even cruise ships and barges are capable of walking along the Neva, was made in the USSR in the 1930s and, especially, in 1973-78. At the same time, even now, the speed of the current in some areas reaches 4-4.5 meters per second, and the depth is only 4-4.5 meters.
After the breakthrough of the Ivanovo rapids, the old channel of Tosna could no longer cope with the flow of water from Ladoga, the river channel widened, and in the zone of the conditional 13th century deluge sand in the Neva Bay several branches were pierced, which formed a series of islands. Nowadays, these are the well-known St. Petersburg islands Vasilievsky, Petrogradsky, Zayachy, Kamenny, Krestovsky, etc. The so-called Neva delta was formed. Some researchers now perceive the traces of this water flow in the Neva Bay as the old channels of Tosna on maps of the 18th and early 19th centuries. That is, the old Tosna delta. However, this is a mistake. The old channel of the Tosna had no delta and stretched straight to Kronstadt. Approximately where the Sea Canal is now dug. It was completely carried by sand into the flood of the conditional 13th century. Although, it is possible that Kronstadt was the island that formed the old delta of Tosna. Here one can only guess. When there was a breakthrough in the area of the Ivanovsky rapids, which means that the delta of the Neva was determined in its modern form, you can find out from the old maps, in particular those that I showed. This is the second half of the 17th century, most likely the 80s, maybe the 70s. Thus, today the Neva River in our usual sense is about 330 - 350 years old. And the current water level in the Neva was established by the years 1701-1703.
By the way, about the name of the Neva River. And Lake Nebo. In the section on linguistics in the second part, I did not specify this point, because in the course of the narration it was premature. The next set of facts would also be ahead of the story. And now, when all the factual material has been presented, it will be high time. It is generally accepted that Nebo and Neva are from the word "new". No, this is a delusion. In Finnish, this only means a sea bay. This is the Finnish name. And in the fiction of the 19th century, this was still well remembered and written about. Here is a photo from the Geographical Dictionary of 1805.
And where the Neva is mentioned in the Novgorod chronicles, it was the sea bay that was meant. And not specifically the Neva River in its modern form, as historians now assure us. This is to the question of the life of Alexander Nevsky and so on.Where did the Izhora River flow there, into which sea bay, when he pulled the Swedes' construction camp in the morning.
Go ahead. At the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, a major catastrophic event took place in the Caspian-Black Sea region. Perhaps somewhere else. There is a high probability that the Mediterranean has shaken well. A number of researchers write about the catastrophic events in modern Siberia at this time. However, I did not deeply study the Mediterranean, as well as Siberia, but in the Black and Caspian Seas this is exactly the case. Kasparal was divided into two water areas. Actually the Caspian and Aral seas. There have been significant tectonic shifts. Mountains grew somewhere, gaps formed somewhere. The Caspian Sea has flowed into one of these sinkholes, this is its southern part today. The Volga and Don were divided, the Kuban changed its channel and mouth, the Bosphorus was broken through. As for the Bosphorus, that is, traces of its three locations, I have already mentioned this above. That is, it was the third and so far the last breakthrough of the Bosphorus. The Black Sea level dropped by about 100 meters in the eastern part, and by 20-30 meters in the western part. Let me remind you that before that, the sea level rose to 150 meters in the eastern part, as I wrote above. That is, now antique cities are located at depths of up to 50 meters in the eastern part and at shallower depths as they move to the west. A smooth decline in the Black Sea level continued until the 70s-80s of the 19th century. Earlier, I thought that it was over by the beginning of the 19th century, but a number of paintings presented in the Vorontsov Palace in Alupka indicate that the water went down another half a century longer. I am inclined to consider this event as one of the aftershocks of the global catastrophic impact of the conventional 13th century (late 12th - early 14th). As well as the Baltic terrorism. However, I do not exclude the possibility that this can be an independent event with its own cause-and-effect relationships. It was this event that served as the weakening of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of a series of Russian-Turkish wars.
In conclusion about the climate. All catastrophes, or rather directly the catastrophe itself and its aftershocks, certainly could not but affect the climate. And the climate was changing. Somewhere the changes were significant, some of the territories simply became uninhabitable. In fact, this is all the Arctic. Central Siberia and Northwest America were badly affected. In the tropics, due to changes in the wind rose and humidity characteristics of the atmosphere, dry seasons began to develop in a progressive progression, which led to the formation of a desert zone. In those places where the tsunami waves hit, the so-called salt marshes developed together with a lack of rain. Where there was a lot of rain, the salt was washed out over time and transformed in the course of chemical reactions, primarily in compounds with organic matter. In general, the climate from an even warm and humid was replaced by separate climatic zones. The equatorial zone has preserved as much as possible the features that were originally. Perhaps the temperature has slightly increased. The polar zones have become very cold. The tropics got dry super-hot seasons. The zone of temperate latitudes received the most differentiated values of winter and summer, especially in the continental part. These changes progressed as the area of the polar caps increased and the amount of moisture and dirt (dust) in the atmosphere decreased. With regard to the territory of the Baltic, climate changes were consistent in the direction of cooling. Starting from the 17th century, the climate became unsuitable for large reptiles, and the period of formation of ice and snow cover in winter became regular. By the end of the 18th century, the climate became unsuitable for catfish and they survived only locally as a relic. If we rely on the analysis of the rings of the oldest oak trees, which I wrote about in Part 1, then we can assume that the phase of the coldest climate in this region began in the middle of the 19th century, it is difficult to say more precisely, because it is necessary to carry out a dendrological analysis, or to find out the dates of the saw cut of these oak trees.I have not yet figured out the dates for sawing oaks, and dendrology is not available to me as a private enthusiast. Here it is rather necessary to rely on fiction and on summaries of meteorological observations, they already existed. Although they also need to be treated with sufficient caution. Especially fiction. Paintings by artists are more likely to be a more reliable source of information. Artists, as it turned out, are generally the most honest media. Based on the paintings that I studied at the Hermitage, in Holland in the 17th century, people skated. This means that the freezing of water bodies in Holland was the norm. What can not be said now. At the same time, in Russia, not a single artist, before the 19th century, painted the usual snow in the form of snowdrifts. These are the paradoxes. It should also be noted that from the mid-18th to the mid-19th centuries, pineapples were massively grown in Russia and even exported to Europe. In greenhouses, but nonetheless. Watermelons, melons, grapes and citrus fruits were grown in Peterhof. And already in the open field. There is information that monks even grew watermelons on Valaam. It should be said that stove heating in buildings and temples was not provided for until the 19th century. For example, until now, in the Catherine Palace in Pushkin and in the Hermitage (Winter Palace), the stoves presented in the halls are of a fake character. Some are on legs directly on top of varnished parquet flooring.
With the beginning of the industrial era, the air on the planet again gradually began to accumulate dust and dirt, which led to a gradual decrease in heat transfer from the Earth's surface. And this process is dynamic with the progression of increase. The first signs of global warming were announced 30-40 years ago, and now it is just a statement of fact. In the future, an eternal November awaits us in winter, and an eternal September in summer. This is for the St. Petersburg region. By the way, I wrote this on some resources a few years ago, which surprised and even made readers laugh, especially at the St. Petersburg forum of fishermen. I told them 5 years ago that in 20 years we will forget about ice fishing. Now it's not funny anymore. We have forgotten about ice fishing already this year, much faster than I expected.
As for the return of the climate to those values that were before the catastrophe of the conditional 13th century, this is impossible. Simply because the density of the atmosphere is different. As a result of that catastrophe, part of the atmosphere was thrown into space, its volume and chemical composition changed. In particular, oxygen has become much less. The moisture saturation has also changed. Previously, there was a water-steam dome, which, like a greenhouse film, created an even and warm climate on the planet. Before the catastrophe of the 13th century, the sun in the sky was very rare, especially as it approached the equator. And even when the sun came out, it was in a haze. That is why he was deified, he was rejoiced and he was worshiped when he was seen.
Well, in general, that's all. You know the rest. By the end of the 17th century, the water level in the Baltic and Ladoga reached the present level. In 1703, Tsar Peter Alekseevich began to unearth the remains of the ancient city, which did not like the Swedish king. A long-term war followed. Everything else, namely the personality of Peter, the chronology of the construction of the city, is not the subject of today's article. And therefore, the time has come to thank you for reading and take leave.
Thanks to all.
Links to go:
- 1 part.
- part 2.
- part 3.
- part 4.
- 5 part.
- 6 part.