2023 Author: Seth Attwood | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:30
It would be great if a time machine was invented, how interesting it would be to look at how our ancestors lived. You can jump somewhere in the Middle Ages, in the days of valiant knights, or in antiquity, where majestic patricians and consuls walk in ancient polis, say "Ave Caesar" and in response hear "Caesar Ave", where life is in full swing, on traders, merchants, artisans gather on the market square, who advertise their goods, and in a public square a certain citizen of democratic Rome calls on people to jump for joy, for whoever does not jump will live like barbarians …
What delightful dreams, what sweet dreams … But, alas, nothing like a time machine has yet been invented. However, you should not despair, I will show you an easier and more reliable way to see the delightful world of antiquity with your own eyes.
Chapter one, in which the reader realizes that something is not right here.
Kiev, the mother of Russian cities, it was here that the civilization of the Slavs was born, who just climbed out of the caves - and immediately let's build cities and acquire writing - the time has come, otherwise everything is not like people. 8 - 10 century AD - this is the date of the founding of Kiev cited by stories with the name, and I have no reason not to believe these most authoritative people.
The official history of the existence of Kiev seems to be flawless, there are maps, chronicles, and so on. etc. A fairy tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it. The entire story is sheer hints that are left for the most observant and attentive. I see no point in retelling the full version of the tale, so I will briefly remind the plot:
Kiy, Shchek, Khoriv and their sister Lybid wanted to create a united center of the Polyan tribes. They named this whole thing in honor of the elder brother Kiy. Then there were the vigilantes of the famous Rurik, the Varangians Askold and Dir, then - Prince Oleg, who said: withє budi m͠t (and) the city of Russkꙑm, and Kievan Rus appeared. The mention of Kiev by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the Byzantine emperor, is interesting. Samvatas is just such a name for Kiev in the chronicle of Constantine. It is clear that no one can "enter", what kind of Samvatas is this … In fact, everything is very simple.
Next came Olga, Svyatoslav, the impostor Vladimir Neveliky, who forcibly Christianized Russia. Until the death of Vladimir Monomakh and his son Mstislav, Kiev was the capital of Kievan Rus, then there was a "division of the pie" between princes (read - oligarchs) and internecine wars for the throne. Doesn't it look like anything? Another faith has been introduced, we demand independence from all of Russia, the glory of Kievan Rus, and so on. But this is so, just an analogy.
Then there were the terrible Tatar-Mongols (read Tartaria really showed aggression and brought in troops), savagery, ignorance and the smell of horse dung. Then the good Lithuanians took Kiev under their wing, until 1569, when Kiev became part of the Commonwealth. And until 1654 he was under the Poles. Then he fell under the mercy of the Moscow tsar, and became part of the Moscow kingdom. But here's the catch
1630 year. William Blue
1644. Jan Janson
1670 Henry Hondis
1685 Moses Pitt
Not the point is important. The main thing is that it is written that way.
Until the beginning of the 18th century, Kiev was also a territorial unit of the Zaporizhzhya Army, partisans, probably, in the rear of the damned Lithuanians and Poles. And after 1727, the Russian kingdom began to be called the Russian Empire, and Kiev became the Kiev province.
Then it was incomprehensible what was going on, until the revolution of the first world in 14 and until the revolution in 17, with all the resulting interim governments and Hrushevsky with the central councils. As Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov wrote: "So far, one thing can be said: according to the account of the Kievites, they had 18 coups. Some of the warm-hearted memoirists counted 12; I can say for sure that there were 14, and I personally experienced 10 of them."
Well, then there was a totalitarian scoop, the Second World War, devastation, rebuilding, prosperity, independence in 1991, and now it stretches out on the banks of the Dnieper, a handsome man - Kiev, attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists every year and striking with the number of churches, cathedrals and other religious buildings. What does antiquity have to do with it, you ask? Perhaps I'll start from afar.
There is a Gorodetsky street named after the famous architect who built up almost half of Kiev together with Eduard - Ferdinand Petrovich Bardtman and Georgy Pavlovich Schlefer. Gorodetsky is the one who builds the city, everything is logical and correct. I quote:
The street arose in 1895 in connection with the planning and development of the former garden and estate of Friedrich Mering, professor of private therapy at the Kiev Imperial University of St. Vladimir, as one of the newly built streets, under the name that was given in honor of Emperor Nicholas II. In 1919, the street was named, which had until 1996 (except for 1941-1943, when the street was again Nikolaevskaya). The modern name in honor of the architect V. Gorodetsky - since 1996. The building of the street was carried out by architects G. Shleifer, E. Bradtman and V. Gorodetsky. Immediately, the street was paved with high quality paving stones. Already before 1897, part of the street was built up - both residential buildings and buildings for other purposes - the Continental hotel, the buildings of the Rabochik society, the Kimyer furniture factory.
Well, Gorodetsky was an exceptionally diverse personality. For example, here are several buildings built according to his designs.
Karaite Kenassa in Kiev
South Russian Machine-Building Plant (now known as "Bolshevik")
City Museum of Antiques and Arts (now the National Art Museum of Ukraine)
Perhaps it was just a dark streak in life, with whom does it not happen? However, let's deal with Gorodetsky Street itself. I found a view through the Mering garden to the old town, on the site of which Gorodetsky Street is now located:
Everything seems to be fine, but there is one but. Number 1 is the St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral.
Number 2 is the Alexander Church
Its facade is facing Khreshchatyk, but is located a little higher by a block.
To make the whole picture clear, here is a map:
Also - 1 is Mikhailovsky, 2 is Aleksandrovsky, 3 is Gorodetsky Street. The photograph with the garden clearly shows that the Alexander Church is turned sideways. And St. Sophia Cathedral is not visible at all, although from the perspective of Gorodetsky everything should be clearly visible. That is, the point from which the picture was taken was not on the modern Gorodetsky street, but a lot to the left, about here:
Sofia is not visible, because she simply did not get into the frame! Unfortunately, I cannot determine the exact location of the shooting, but the fact remains - from Gorodetsky Street it is impossible to see the Alexander Church sideways, it will be turned about three-quarters to the beholder. Further, if you just walk along Gorodetsky and just raise your head, you will find an interesting discrepancy. Gorodetsky Street, 11
How come? They built it up in 1895. Forgot to agree?
Another interesting discrepancy is associated with the Opera House. In the article about Odessa - Ochakov, here I already wrote about the Odessa Opera House. It was the turn of Kiev. There was a city theater:
He did not touch anyone, no one touched him either, but in 1896 a fire broke out, and a modern opera house was built in its place. Moreover, they built houses on the side, uprooted the trees in front of the theater, destroyed the fountain and laid paving stones.
On the opera itself, the dates are as follows:
And the photograph itself of a contemporary opera, which I cited above - it is signed "90s" here, for example. 1900 here. Here it is
First, they built turrets in front of the entrance, and then suddenly decided to demolish them and make them smaller? Why is there no scaffolding, where is the construction process itself? Why is there not a single photograph of the opera house under construction? Because NOBODY BUILD IT at the time we are told. It was built in 657 AD and don't ask why. Subconscious - who knows, he will understand.
Along the hem and buildings of Kiev. Officially, Podil was built up in squares and rectangles in the 19th century, this is how Kiev looked like until the early 19th century (1700 - 1800). Official version.
And here are three maps from the 17th century:
Feel the difference.
Conclusions, dear readers, do it yourself.
Chapter two, in which the reader plunges headlong into the enchanting world of ancient myths and beliefs.
2 days of walking around Kiev - and I have interesting photos of that side of Kiev, which could not even occur to anyone.
Where to begin? Perhaps I'll start with the Passage.
The entrance to the arch.
Address - Khreshchatyk Street, 15. Years of construction - 1913 - 1914.
On the border of the XIX-XX centuries, the Stifner estate, located on the site of the current Passage, was acquired by the insurance company "" for 1.5 million rubles. On the purchased land with an area of 1 hectare, the company decided to build a large business center with shops on the ground floor, offices on the upper floors, as well as apartments that can be rented out. To implement the plan, the Kiev architect Pavel Andreev was invited.
The Internet does not give out a biography or a photograph of this mysterious Pavel Andreev, only an architect - the namesake, who was born in 1954. Also, nothing is known about the mysterious Stifner estate right in the center of the city. There is also not a single old photograph of a passage under construction, or at least just a photograph up to the Great Patriotic War. Although there is this:
But few people know that there were at least 3 passages, one of which was destroyed during the Second World War.
And now the insides of the Passage.
“I give my head to cut off that not one of the many thousands of residents of this house knows what is depicted on its facades. Moreover, I dare say that not a single citizen of Kiev, not even a single inhabitant of the globe, knows this, except perhaps the authors of the project (if they are still alive) and … me … the kids on the bas-reliefs do not play with a lion and a lioness at all, they simply … solder them. Yes, they do! Some open their mouths and bring a cup of wine, pouring it from some kind of amphora. The other kids, with bunches of grapes in their hands, are preparing wine. And two even taste it … Andreev told us about some interesting things … ".
Viktor Nekrasov, writer, resident of the Passage. Again the surname Andreev, is it the son of the architect?
Children play with griffin
Coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire - eagle with laurel wreath
Hephaestus, Aphrodite and little Eros
Poseidon and Amphitrite, riding a newt
Interesting texture of the stone, somewhere I've already seen it …
Typical features of antique architecture above the windows (see here)
Robert Hubert ruins of Rome
The symbol of the god Mercury or Hermes is Caduceus. We will return to this god many times.
Arch of Septimius Severus is sooo ancient
There are almost all the triumphal arches in the world.
Go ahead. It should be clarified what a lion and a griffin are for the ancient world. Our world is the world of symbols and logos, now the levi's and macdonalds logo, there used to be other logos.
For the first time, images of griffins are attested on the palace frescoes of Crete of the Late Minoan period. Also, images of griffins were found in ancient Egypt and ancient Persia, but they were most widespread in the art of the ancient Greek world. They were first mentioned by a poet of the 6th century. BC e. Aristeus of Proconnes, as well as Aeschylus (Prometheus 803) and Herodotus (History IV 13). Griffins are also associated with some images of the Scythian "animal style". The first written mention of griffins we find in the ancient Greek author Aristeus of Proconnes, who lived in the 7th century BC. e. He traveled deep into Central Asia in search of the Hyperboreans and their sanctuary to Apollo, who was revered in these parts as the ruler of light and darkness. In his wanderings, Aristeus met a tribe of Immedonians, who told him that to the north of their lands there was a mountain range - the abode of cold winds. The Greek traveler decided that these were the Caucasus Mountains, although modern scientists are more inclined to believe that it was more likely the Urals or even Altai.
A LION - the king of beasts, one of the most common symbols of courage, speed, fortitude, strength and greatness for thousands of years. Lion figures are depicted on royal thrones in India and on the lion's gate in Mycenae. Stone statues of lions are found at the entrance to Buddhist temples in China. In ancient Egypt, even the keys to temples were made in the shape of a lion. The throne of King Solomon was adorned with golden lions, and he himself was likened to the king of beasts with the key of wisdom in his teeth.
The symbolism of the lion reveals the ancient mystery of sacrifice and the laws of retribution. The lion is a luminiferous symbol of fire and sun. It is no coincidence that in Egypt, where his skin was an attribute of the sun, the pharaoh was usually depicted in the form of a lion. In ancient Greece, the lion was considered the guide of the sun. Images of a lion as a symbol of the spirit often appeared on amulets and talismans.
Nevertheless, each traditional culture has refracted this symbol in its own way. In Egypt, the lion was associated with the gods Ra, Osiris and Horus, and also served as the embodiment of the goddesses Tefnut and Hator. The ancient Egyptian goddess Bastet, personifying life and fertility, was depicted as a woman with the head of a lioness or a cat. Amt - a lion with the head of a crocodile - devoured sinners. Sacred cows - the projection of Isis, - being angry, also turned into lionesses. The Syrian goddess Allat in the city of Palmyra was represented by a lion holding a lamb in its claws. In Greece, the lion was a calendar emblem: in the spring, Dionysus could appear in the form of a lion.
In India, the lion was the embodiment of the guardian of the world order Vishnu, and the lion-man (narasimha) - the personification of strength and courage - meant faith in Vishnu. Durga - the wife of Shiva - as the feminine aspect of spiritual power was depicted sitting on a lion. In countries with a Buddhist tradition, the lion meant courage and nobility. He also symbolized the North, which is associated with the coming of the Buddha and his reign. In China, Buddha was revered as "a lion among people," and a lion's roar was associated with the voice of the Buddha. In Islam, saint Ali - "the king of saints" - was called "the lion of Allah".
Among the Slavic tribe of Lyutichi, the lion was a symbol of the god of war, Radogost, who was revered as the third incarnation of Dazhdbog. The main temple of the lutichi - Retra - was decorated with numerous images of lions.
And one more clarification - and let's go further. Greek ornaments. More correctly - swastika ornaments.
Paul of St. Isaac's Cathedral, St. Petersburg, earlier - Oreshek, even earlier - Ladoga, was founded and built in 942 BC
And now you can dive, warm water.
Coins of Alexander the Great
Caduceus again - symbol of Mercury
Khreshchatyk street, near the European square.
Inhabitants of Atantida, apparently, well, or something related to the sea
The personification of trade is in the center of Mercury, the patron saint of trade, and around people with amphoras and all sorts of phenomena. The possibility of full or partial restoration of the bas-reliefs is not excluded, in fact it is.
Triangles again …
And this is already Pushkinskaya street
Bogdan Khmelnitsky Street
Opera House, stylized Star of David (formerly a very revered symbol among the Slavic - Aryans).
Four suits - four worlds: reality, glory, nav and rule. For Kungurov - a club or a cross - this is a nav, but I am firmly convinced that this is a world of glory.
Relief on Trajan's Column, Rome
Teacher's House, Vladimirskaya street 57
And again Mercury
By the way, this is how everything is crumbled into yellow and blue)
A common element in antiquity
And who is this pundit?
National Museum of Art
Temple of Hephaestus in Athens
The building of the National Bank of Ukraine in Podil. The Roman goddess of victory Nike.
By the way, I'm going on the subway yesterday, and what do you think? I see this:
Well, this is so, by the way.
Chapter three, final, in which the reader comprehends the information and takes note of it.
As you know, Kiev is located exactly at the same longitude as St. Petersburg, Odessa, and the Great Pyramids. This can hardly be called a coincidence.
The year is 1918. Aerial photography. Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
Too many coincidences, don't you think?
And yet, why is the image of Mercury or Hermes so often found in Kiev? Because Kiev has always been a large trading city, one of the largest trade routes from the Varangians to the Greeks passed through it. Yes, yes, it was founded long before the official version - in 59 AD, and built too. It is not surprising that the patron god of trade has become a symbol of the city. Oh yes, now the symbol of the city is Archangel Michael. Well, the studio knows not such metamorphoses, so there is nothing surprising here, just someone has smaller wings, and someone has more … Well, that's it, version.
In short, if you want to plunge into the fascinating world of antiquity, then go to St.
… In a word, the city is beautiful, the city is happy. Mother of Russian cities.
But those were legendary times, those times when a sad, young generation lived in the gardens of the most beautiful city of our Motherland. Then, in the hearts of this generation, the confidence was born that all life would be white, quiet, calm, dawns, sunsets, Dnieper, Khreshchatyk, sunny streets in summer, and in winter not cold, not hard, large, tender snow …
M. A. Bulgakov. "Kiev is a city"
All health and sober mind)