Table of contents:
- The principles of self-organization of matter
- Causal relationship: living - from living, reasonable - from reasonable
- Forms of consciousness
- Evolution of consciousness
When we talk about physics, then, first of all, we understand that we are talking about the nature or origin of things. After all, "fuzis" in Greek means "nature". For example, we say "the nature of matter", which means that we are talking about the origin of matter, its structure, development. Therefore, under the "physics of consciousness" we will also understand the origin of consciousness, its structure and development.
The content of the article
1. Introduction or three scientific facts that deny the existing view of reality
2. Principles of self-organization of matter
4. Causal relationship: living - from living, reasonable - from reason
5. Forms of consciousness
6. Conclusion. Evolution of consciousness
Scientific research in recent years has shown that the concept of consciousness presupposes a completely different physical reality, very far from the one that classical physics offers us. I would like to dwell on three scientific facts that fundamentally change our understanding of reality.
First factconcerns the holographic nature of consciousness, which was first discussed in the 60s of the last century. Although back in the 40s, while studying the nature of memory and its location in the brain, the young scientist neurosurgeon K. Pribram discovered that a specific memory is not localized in certain parts of the brain, but is distributed throughout the brain as a whole. Pribram came to this conclusion based on the numerous experimental data of the neuropsychologist K. Lashley.
Lashley was involved in teaching rats to perform a series of tasks - for example, race to find the shortest path in a maze. Then he removed various parts of the rat's brain and re-tested them. His goal was to localize and remove the part of the brain that stored the memory of the ability to run through the maze. To his surprise, Lashley found that no matter which parts of the brain were removed, the memory as a whole could not be eliminated. Usually only the rats' motility was impaired, so that they barely waddled through the maze, but even with the removal of a large part of the brain, their memory remained intact.
Confirmation of this ability has also come from human observation. All patients whose brains were partially removed for medical reasons never complained of a specific memory loss. Removing a significant part of the brain can lead to the fact that the patient's memory becomes blurry, but no one has lost their selective, so-called selective memory after surgery.
Over time, it turned out that memory is not the only function of the brain, which is based on the holographic principle. Lashley's next discovery was that the visual centers of the brain exhibit remarkable resistance to surgery. Even after removing 90% of the visual cortex (the part of the brain that receives and processes what the eye sees) in rats, they were able to perform tasks requiring complex visual operations. Thus, it has been proven that vision is also holographic. Then it turned out that hearing is holographic, and so on. In general, the research of Pribram and Ashley proved that the brain is based on the principle of holography.
To second scientific fact, which also introduces a significant distortion in the existing scientific picture of the world, is the discovered subjectivity of scientific observations. The modern man knows that there is a wave-particle dualism since school.There is a topic in the school curriculum that tells that an electron and a photon behave differently in different experiments: in some cases, like a particle, in others, like a wave. This is how the wave-particle dualism is explained, and then a generalizing conclusion is made that all elementary particles can be both particles and waves. Just like light, gamma rays, X-rays can change from wave to particle. Only the school curriculum does not say that physicists have discovered another extremely interesting fact: a particle in an experiment manifests itself as a corpuscle only when an observer tracks it. Those. quanta appear as particles only when we look at them. For example, when an electron is not observed, it always manifests itself as a wave, and this is confirmed by experiments.
Imagine you have a ball in your hand that only becomes a bowling ball if you are looking at it. If you sprinkle talcum powder on a track and launch such a "quantized" ball towards the pins, then it would leave a straight track only in those places when you looked at it. But when you blinked, that is, did not look at the ball, it would stop drawing a straight line and leave a wide wave trail, as, for example, on the sea.
One of the founders of quantum physics, Niels Bohr, pointing out this fact, said that if elementary particles exist only in the presence of an observer, then it is meaningless to talk about the existence, properties and characteristics of particles before observing them. Naturally, such a statement largely undermines the authority of science, since it is based on the properties of the phenomena of the "objective world", i.e. independent of the observer. But if now it turned out that the properties of matter depend on the very act of observation, then it is not clear what then awaits the whole of science ahead.
The third scientific fact, which I would like to dwell on refers to an experiment carried out in 1982 at the University of Paris by a research group led by physicist Alain Aspect. Alain and his team found that, under certain conditions, paired pairs of photons can correlate their angle of polarization with the angle of their twin. This means that particles are able to instantly communicate with each other regardless of the distance between them, whether it is 10 meters or 10 billion kilometers between them. Somehow, each particle always knows what the other is doing. One of two conclusions follows from this experiment:
1.the postulate of Einstein about the maximum speed of propagation of the interaction, equal to the speed of light, is incorrect, 2. elementary particles are not separate objects, but belong to a certain unified whole, corresponding to a deeper level of reality.
Based on Aspect's discovery, University of London physicist David Bohm suggested that objective reality does not exist, that, despite its apparent density, the universe is fundamentally a gigantic, luxuriously detailed hologram.
According to Bohm, the apparent superluminal interaction between particles indicates that there is a deeper level of reality hidden from us with a higher dimension than ours. He believes that we see particles separate because we see only part of reality. Particles are not separate "parts" but facets of a deeper unity that is ultimately holographic and invisible. And since everything in physical reality consists of these "phantoms", the universe we observe is itself a projection, a hologram. If the apparent separation of particles is an illusion, then on a deeper level all objects in the world can be infinitely interconnected. Everything interpenetrates with everything, and although it is human nature to separate, dismember, and sort out all natural phenomena, all such divisions are artificial, and nature ultimately appears as an inseparable web of a single indivisible whole. The discovery of A. Aspect showed that we must be ready to consider radically new approaches to understanding reality.
Thus, the holographic nature of consciousness discovered in research merges with the holographic model of the world; it is, as it were, a consequence of the fact that the world itself is arranged in the form of a giant hologram.Therefore, in order to substantiate the origin of consciousness, it is necessary to create a model of the world that explains the holographic nature of the entire universe.
The principles of self-organization of matter
The concept of the universe, which is able to explain the holographic nature of the universe, can be built on the basis of the self-organization of systems. There is no need to say that the self-organization of matter occurs everywhere, it is obvious. Although it is believed that if self-organization is observed everywhere in nature, therefore, this is such a property of matter itself. In this case, it is usually said that matter is "immanently inherent" in the self-organization mechanism. This mechanism is not explained, much less proved.
However, it is possible to formulate the basic principles of self-organization of matter, which are self-sufficient for the self-organization of any system. It is from the very construction of the theory of self-organization of systems that it makes sense in general to talk about the origin and formation of the Universe and everything that exists in it. Such a theory (more precisely - the concept) of self-organization includes ten basic principles. The principles themselves are all-encompassing so much that we can justifiably refer them to the most basic laws of the Universe, to super laws or super principles. Because on their basis, the mechanism of all processes or phenomena in the Universe, including consciousness, can be logically explained.
Therefore, before we start talking about consciousness, we will very briefly formulate ten principles of self-organization of systems or matter, which, in general, are one and the same, arranging them according to threes (or triads) of principles.
First triad the principles of self-organization determines the image (or content) of the emerging system.
First principle - the principle of self-determination. In order to stand out from a certain homogeneous, homogeneous state, the system must "discover" in itself a certain feature by which it can distinguish itself from the environment.
Second principle - the principle of complementarity. The increasing complexity of the system is determined by the receipt of one more feature, which is formed according to the principle of "anti-feature", i.e. its absence, which in turn is another sign.
Third principle - the principle of neutralization. The complication and stability of the system will give a third feature, which will include both qualities of the two previous features. The third principle speaks of the possibility of integrating two opposites and the formation of a new, qualitatively different integrity, different from the original one.
Second triad of principles self-organization determines the form in which the emerging system is embodied.
Fourth a principle is the boundary conditions for the existence of a system that determine the trinity of systems (subsystem, system, supersystem), as a whole (three in one).
Fifth principle - the principle of differentiation or the process of development inward, in other words, it is a process of quantization. Any dedicated system is capable of defining new subsystems within itself, i.e. all of the above principles are embodied in this process. Each new individuality is capable of infinitely quantization according to an established criterion, each time forming a new integrity of a smaller scale.
Sixth principle - the principle of integration of particulars into a single whole, while preserving all previously identified opposites. As a result, integrity acquires an internal differentiated content, or an internal ordered structure. This is the principle of evolution. The new integrity differs from the original in that it has an internal structure, harmony, its entropy is significantly lower. Therefore, the main features of all evolutionary processes are the integration of systems and a decrease in the internal entropy of the system.
In fact, the fifth and sixth principles declare the transformation of integrity from a continuous (continuous) state to a discrete one and vice versa.The combination of both principles gives us the development formula “continuity - discreteness - continuity”.
The third triad of principles self-organization determines the way to translate the idea of a system into a real system.
Seventh principle. All of the listed principles become seven new features of systems that establish connections between systems and subsystems that determine their new properties: three - inside, three - outside, or otherwise three lower structure-forming functions and three higher control functions, between which there is a reflection function that allows you to reflect lower functions in higher ones.
Eighth principle. Together with the seventh principle, it represents two dialectically related laws: the law of creation and the law of destruction, which, complementing each other, allow the processes of evolution to be realized. The mechanism of action of the eighth principle is based on the formation of feedbacks due to the laws of symmetry and conservation of energy.
Ninth principle. The principle of integrity, isolation and unity not only of all systems, but of the entire universe, embodied in the form of the structure of the system and its functions, as a way of existence of any creation created in our Universe as a self-organizing system.
Now about the last, tenth principle, which does not apply to the triad, but is a separate self-sufficient principle, and which, as it were, includes all the previous nine.
Tenth principle is the principle of the implementation of the system or the point of implementation when the principles are embodied in reality. This is the principle of system integrity.
Now, using the listed principles, it is possible to explain all the phenomena of the world. The origin of consciousness will be considered in the general context of the formation of the Universe. It should be immediately stipulated that the creation of the world cannot be viewed from scratch. The world does not arise and is not born by itself. Therefore, we will consider our world not from the point of view of its origin, but from the point of view of its reorganization or restructuring. This means that up to the moment when our world, our Universe, began to be organized, it was preceded by a certain initial state or primary forematter, from which the present universe was formed.
The self-organization of our world began with the first principle or principle of self-determination. This primary feature, from which the organization of our Universe began, can be called a subjective feature for the reasons set out above. According to the second principle, another sign, or anti-sign, which can be called an object one, has been "formed" as a trace. Thus, two realities are formed in the world: subjective and objective. But looking ahead, we can say that you and I live in integral reality, when both - subjective and objective reality - are united into a single whole, and human consciousness unites them in itself.
I will not go into details about the process of self-organization of the Universe, this is fully described in my book "Physics of Consciousness", which is published on the Internet. Let us dwell on just one point. The first object that is created in the objective world is time. Time, in addition to being an object, has a number of amazing properties.
Speaking about the self-organization of matter, we, as it were, imply the existence of certain structure-forming forces. Thanks to the research of N. Kozyrev, who studied the physical properties of time, it became clear that structure-forming functions are inherent in time itself. Kozyrev believed that time is a phenomenon of Nature that unites all objects in the world. It has a special property that makes the difference between causes and effects. It is through time that some systems influence others, energy is transferred from the system to subsystems and the internal structure of systems is organized. Time and energy become synonymous.And time in its formation appears not as the fourth coordinate of the space-time continuum, but as a quantum of action, as a self-organized entity with its own characteristics and qualities.
Time appears in the form of a system of chrono shells, each of which is a "hole" filled with a certain amount of energy. Therefore, the term chronoshell is understood as a structured flow of time. In other words, a certain physical field, conditioned by the nature of time, can be considered a chronoshell. Only in contrast to the usual fields, magnetic, for example, which are considered infinite, the chronoshell is limited, i.e. closed. Therefore, the word shell appears, one could also say chronosphere, only the topology of the chronoshell or its shape can be different from spherical, therefore the term shell is more appropriate.
It is very difficult to define what time is. This is due to the fact that we consider time to be one, i.e. the same for all occasions. However, research into the problem of time has shown that there are many times. Each object, process, phenomenon has its own time. For example, speaking about subjective reality, it would be quite possible to admit the existence of consciousness on our planet. But the difficulty in proving or refuting this assumption is that we exist with the planet in different time dimensions. What is a millennium for us will be just one instant for the planet. Therefore, we will probably never be able to "talk" with the planet. And although it is clear that this is just a joke (about the "conversation" with the planet), the meaning of the various temporal "dimensions" from this example is clear. However, it makes no sense to talk about time dimensions, since immediately comes a comparison with spatial dimensions, which is fundamentally wrong. Therefore, the term sheath is again more appropriate.
At the first stage, the universe is formed in the form of a system consisting of a huge number of chrono shells in accordance with ten principles of self-organization of matter. The wave properties of chronoshells structure the space of the Universe in the form of a huge hologram, where any part of the hologram is reflected at every point. I call this hologram the integral structure of the universe (ISM). It can also be represented in the form of a huge "floppy disk" on which the entire plan for the development of the world or the scenario of the evolution of the Universe is written.
There are a great many chronoshells, and they are all interconnected by means of time. We can distinguish the chronoshells for each phenomenon, process, object, for example, the chronoshell of planet Earth, the chronoshell of humanity, the chronoshell of an individual, etc.
Causal relationship: living - from living, reasonable - from reasonable
The famous scientist V.I. Vernadsky, searching for the origin of life on Earth in a certain geological epoch, argued that there is not a single fact indicating that life originated at some special time, on the contrary, he said, all the facts testify, that there has always been living matter. He took from non-existence the principle of Redi, formulated back in the 17th century: "Omne vivum e vivo" (all living things from living things). Vernadsky denied the spontaneous origin of life (abiogenesis). He said that from a geochemical and geological point of view, the question is not about the synthesis of a separate organism, but about the emergence of the biosphere as a kind of a single whole. The living environment (biosphere), he said, was created on our planet in the pre-geological period. Moreover, a whole monolith was created at once, and not a separate species of living organisms, therefore it is necessary to assume the simultaneous creation of a number of organisms of different geochemical functions, closely interconnected with each other. This continuous unity of living matter in our environment has existed from the very beginning of the formation of the planet.
And the famous biologist N.V.Timofeev-Resovsky once remarked, “We are all such materialists that we are all madly worried about how life arose. At the same time, we almost do not care how matter arose. Everything is simple here. Matter is eternal, it has always been, and no questions are needed. Always was! But life, you see, must necessarily arise. Or maybe she, too, has always been. And there is no need for questions, just always was, and that's all."
Following the logic of cause-and-effect relationships, it can also be argued that living things can only arise from living things. This means that such a quality of matter as vitality has always existed, and if we do not mark it in inert matter, this does not mean at all that life is not there. Perhaps it is capable of manifesting itself only at certain quantities, less than which we perceive matter as inanimate. But the same can be said about intelligence. Again, in accordance with the logic of cause-and-effect relationships, the rational can only arise from the rational.
Based on the above premises, we can assume that the vital and intelligent components or components of our world have always existed, just as we believe that matter has existed forever. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce a vital (living) and intelligent component in the form of U and S-signs into the original primary matter, proceeding from the fact that cause-and-effect relationships show that dead matter cannot give rise to living matter, just as unreasonable matter cannot give rise to intelligent.
Studying the nature of time, Kozyrev paid special attention to cause-and-effect relationships that are determined by the passage of time. Therefore, now we can talk about three types of chronoshells, each of which has its own characteristic: S-sign - rationality, U-sign - vitality, D-sign - substance.
The formation of three types of chronoshells can be represented in the form of three colors, where each color corresponds to its own type, or they can also be represented in the form of partial derivatives formed during differentiation. Although these partial derivatives are also just an illustration of the ongoing processes. But they more fully reflect the meaning of the resulting objects than the color version.
If we talk about the chronoshells of our planet, then we can assume that in the process of evolution (integration), the physical body of the planet was formed in the D-type chrono-shell, the Earth's biosphere was created in the U-type chrono-shell, and the planet's noosphere was created in the S-type chrono-shell. Considering the evolution of the Earth, we can say with complete confidence that the origin of life, as well as the origin of intelligence in the form in which we are now observing them, is not at all accidental. They were predetermined by the entire course of evolution.
Forms of consciousness
When we admit that inert matter lacks consciousness and life, this does not mean at all that in fact there is neither life nor consciousness there. It is quite possible that they appear only when a certain amount is reached, less than which we perceive matter as unreasonable or inanimate.
It has long been established by science that the intelligence of some living beings increases when a certain number of individuals of one species are reached. Scientists have recorded the fact that many living things of the same species, getting together, begin to act as a perfectly oiled mechanism, controlled from a single center. In each such case, a certain number of individuals of the same species is required, after exceeding which they begin to possess a collective consciousness and obey a single goal. So termites, being together, in small numbers will never take up the construction of a termite mound. But if their number is “increased” to “critical mass”, then they immediately stop their chaotic movement and start building a very complex structure - a termite mound. One gets the impression that they suddenly receive an order from somewhere to build a termite mound.After that, many thousands of insects are instantly grouped into working teams and the work begins to boil. Termites confidently build the most complex structure with countless passages, ventilation ducts, separate rooms for food for larvae, queen, etc. The following experiment was also carried out: at the initial stages of building a termite mound, it was divided by a sufficiently large and thick metal sheet. Moreover, they made sure that the termites on one side of the leaf did not crawl over it. Then, when the termite mound was built, the leaf was removed. It turned out that all the moves on one side exactly coincided with the moves on the other side.
It's the same with birds. Migratory birds that have strayed from the flock lose their orientation, wander, not knowing the exact direction, and may die. As soon as such strayed birds gather together in a flock, they immediately get a kind of "collective" intelligence, indicating to them the traditional route of flight, although just now each of them one by one did not know the direction. There were cases when the flock consisted only of young animals, but it still flew to the right place. A similar form of consciousness manifests itself in fish, mice, antelopes and other animals as something that exists separately from the consciousness of each individual.
Let us call such a "collective mind" of animals a species form of consciousness. This means that intelligence does not belong to an individual individual, but to the entire species as a whole. In this case, we are talking about the fact that rationality initially manifests itself as an instinct for self-preservation. In the examples described above, it is the “species” that is interested in its self-preservation, i.e. in preserving not a single individual, but a species as a whole. In contrast to the species form, we will also distinguish between the individual form of consciousness. This individual consciousness is predominantly possessed by a person. The individual form of consciousness is "interested" in preserving the integrity of only a separate organism.
We will use the various levels of organization of living matter, or biological organization, existing in biology, which, as a rule, are subdivided into seven levels: 1.biosphere, 2.ecosystem (or biogeocenotic), 3.population-specific, 4.organic, 5.organic tissue, 6.cellular, 7.molecular.
As you know, populations living in different parts of the species range do not live in isolation. They interact with populations of other species, forming together with them biotic communities - integral systems of an even higher level of organization. In each community, the population of a given species plays its assigned role, occupying a certain ecological niche and, together with populations of other species, ensuring the sustainable functioning of the community. It is thanks to the functioning of populations that conditions are created that contribute to the maintenance of life. And in this case, we can also talk about another form of consciousness, which we will call the consciousness of an ecosystem or biogeocenosis.
This form of consciousness is most clearly manifested during forest fires. As you know, during forest fires, all animals run in the same direction without attacking each other. This case of the same behavior of members of different stages of the biocenosis exists as a mechanism for the preservation of not only the species, but also larger taxa.
We can also talk about the consciousness of organs. AI Goncharenko claims that it has been experimentally established that the cardiovascular system is a separate highly organized structure of our body. It has its own brain (the brain of the heart), in other words, the "consciousness of the heart."
Thus, in accordance with the seven levels of organization of living matter, we can talk about seven forms of consciousness. But for now we will talk only about four forms: 1.biospheric, 2.ecosystem, 3.species and 4.individual.
Evolution of consciousness
Knowing the direction of the historical development of living organisms in time, it can be argued that the species form of consciousness appeared earlier than the individual one.Therefore, we believe that individual consciousness appears by quantizing the species form. The specific form of consciousness also appeared as a quantization of a higher level of hierarchy, i.e. ecosystem, which in turn was formed due to the quantization of the consciousness of the biosphere.
Considering the evolution of human consciousness, and its transformation from a specific form to an individual one, we can assume that the specific form of consciousness exists in a person at the level of instincts or at the level of subconsciousness. The subconscious mind controls breathing, the work of the heart, liver, brain, blood flow, excretory processes, etc.
Moreover, it is clear that the evolution of the species form of consciousness occurs in the consciousness of a person with the help of brain activity. We know that the main signs of evolution correspond to the decrease in entropy and the integration of all forms of matter. Therefore, the work of consciousness to reduce entropy leads to the emergence of a new form of consciousness, which, in contrast to the original (species), will be called the social form of consciousness. This means that in the course of evolution, the species form of consciousness belonging to the population-specific level of organization is transformed into a social consciousness belonging to the species as a whole. The difference between a species form and a social one is that it has a lower internal entropy. This, in turn, means that social consciousness is more orderly and harmonious, it has a higher level of self-awareness.
In this regard, three levels can be distinguished in the consciousness of each person: subconsciousness, consciousness and overconsciousness, where the subconsciousness corresponds to a specific form of consciousness, and overconsciousness is a social form of consciousness. When we hear that a person is a herd animal, we understand that a person is controlled by a species form of consciousness, his behavior is more subordinate to the instincts of self-preservation. The social level of consciousness allows a person to act consciously in the interests of society, his instincts and needs go beyond his own body. At this level, a person realizes that it is impossible to survive in an aggressive environment alone. In modern terminology, this process is called the expansion of consciousness.
The level of consciousness of the biosphere, which in the process of evolution is transformed into the noosphere, shows that in the face of natural disasters, humanity is able to survive only by uniting. The latest earthquake in Japan clearly demonstrates that this tragedy is not a personal tragedy of the Japanese people alone. The accident at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant goes far beyond a local incident. It is possible to cope with this threat only by combining all the efforts of mankind. By creating critical situations, the consciousness of the biosphere shows that humanity should move in the direction of searching for mutual points of contact and integration of peoples, and not get bogged down in interethnic strife and the division of spheres of influence.