The official explanation is "how were the dolmens built?" - this is a version about cutting slabs from stone massifs, adjusting them to each other and installing them. The version applied by official history to all stone structures. But it has a number of difficulties and contradictions.
There are plenty of difficulties in this technology. Especially considering the level of development of the inhabitants who built dolmens in those days in the mountainous area of the Caucasus. Although, dolmens are found all over the world
Some of the main questions:
- how and where did the builders get the huge sand blocks of the required size? No quarries or workings were found.
- How were multi-ton blocks transported to the place where the dolmen was erected in the absence of roads in the mountainous area?
- how and with what tools was the stone processed?
- how did you achieve the exact mating of multi-ton blocks along curved joints?
- how were the relief marks applied on the surface of the blocks?
- how did this grandiose culture, which left us in the legacy of thousands of dolmens in the vast territory of the North-West Caucasus, disappear and why after almost one and a half thousand years?
But it is worth considering the details in the structure and surface of the dolmens, as it becomes clear that the slabs were not machined, or these works were minimal.
The technology is shown in this diagram.
In the pit at the site of the future dolmen, a fluidogenic mass was laid, forming the foundation of the future structure - a heel stone. In the ground, molds were made for the slabs of the future side walls, and the pouring was performed.
After the mortar had gained the necessary structural strength, the slab was placed on the “butt end” using levers. The side walls rested on struts, tilting towards each other at a slight angle.
Using earth backfill, formwork was formed for the front and rear walls between the side walls. Obviously, the mating with the side plates in the presence of grooves was absolute.
Upon completion of the manufacture of the front and rear wall slabs, the entire dolmen was buried under an earthen formwork mound. The top of the formwork mound was leveled, and a fluidogenic mass was laid on it, forming a cover plate. After the mass was lithified, it remained to excavate the portal. Earth was extracted from the dolmen through the hole.
The technology does not raise any special questions, except for one thing: most believe that dolmens are built of rock, and here - pouring a liquid mixture like concrete. Where did the ancients get concrete? Officially, when these buildings were being built, there were no cement production facilities. The locals did not know such recipes either. Officially, the chronological framework of the Caucasian dolmen culture covers the period from the middle of the 3rd millennium to the end of the 2nd millennium BC. Although, in ancient Rome, this technology took possession of something immediately.
Answer: dolmens were poured with a liquid mass - geo-concrete, fluidolites or, in a simple way, mud masses emerging from the bowels as from a mud volcano.
It is this pouring technology that explains these techniques in dolmen laying. When cutting down, it is completely unreasonable to cut out such corner blocks: it is difficult, there is a lot of waste and a high probability of marriage.
Ruined round dolmen. It is more optimal to build such a dolmen by filling
Another round dolmen
The Caucasus, where dolmens are mainly found, are mountains. In the process of formation, various fluidolites should have come out, including mud - mineral tuff, which gradually turned to stone.
In places where dolmens are located, there are many such fossilized outcrops. Examples:
Traces of the emergence of sandy-clayey cemented solutions on the day surface can be observed near each accumulation of dolmens.
In the area of art. Erivanskaya, at the confluence of the Kruchenny stream into the Abin river, is the "City of Dolmens". The outer surface of the portal slab is decorated in the form of a herringbone ornament. In the lower part of the slab, right under the hole, the drawing is especially well preserved. A careful examination of it, it is clear that the "herringbone" on the stone is not applied with a piercing tool, but as if squeezed out or cast. There is every reason to believe that the herringbone pattern is an imprint of a matted fabric made of bark or grass.
"Ornament" of a dolmen near the Pshada river
Traces left from the mat when pouring the dolmen slab
There are also completely monolithic dolmens. Monolithic dolmen Kapibg 3. Source
On the other side
Mamedovo gorge. Dolmen Healer.
It is trough-shaped, the lid seems to have been moved
Monolithic dolmen near Abinsk.
Dolmen of the Grape Stream 2
Dolmen Kalezhtam 3 - Jeozhtam tract
As you can see, they were made simply in the outlets of fluidolites.
There is such a mention of pebble rocks in geo-concrete in the Black Sea region:
Ruined dolmen. Somewhere near Sevastopol
Pebble in the material structure of dolmen blocks. Like real concrete
Pebbles could be added to geo-concrete masses, to collected fluidolites. But the fact that pebbles could come out of the bowels along with these mud streams is also not excluded.