The next section. Artifacts, including written sources.
In general, all 4 previous parts showed artifacts and a number of written sources were given, which include maps. The entire historical center of St. Petersburg must certainly be attributed to the artifacts of the old antediluvian city. Most of the city's buildings stand on ancient foundations. Many buildings have been simply restored. In the center of the city there are so-called St. Petersburg "wells". This is a peculiar form of the courtyard, which has only one arched entrance. Or two entrances, passing through, in which case these "wells" can stretch far enough in a chain. So, many "wells" have two floor levels. About which the residents of houses around this courtyard of the "well" often do not even suspect, and they learn about it only when suddenly the car has failed, or something else has failed. In general, for various random reasons. There is even a term for yards "wells" with two levels of floor, they are called "hanging yards". It is also interesting that very often the houses around such a "well" are in a suspended yard, and it even happens that several houses are on the same suspended yard. That is, houses do not have their own foundations and their own basements. All this speaks of the ancient nature of such courtyards. The city was built, or rather rebuilt on what it was. Now these hanging yards are a real headache for public utilities. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, they were often used for warehouses, including for firewood and coal. Naturally, such suspended yards were repaired, that is, they were reinforced, concreted, channels were installed, and so on. However, with the transfer of houses to central heating during the Soviet era, suspended courtyards were largely forgotten, no one repaired them, and today many of them are in disrepair. In general, there are 118 known such yards today, of which more than forty are emergency.
Further on the topic of basements. For some reason this topic is closed and there is little information on it. Well, except for the fact that during the war material values were kept in the basements of St. Isaac's Cathedral, and cats live in the basements of the Hermitage who are on state allowance. Everyone knows well about cats, but few people know about the fact that the length of the cellars of the Hermitage (Winter Palace) is more than 20 kilometers. Can you imagine what 20 kilometers is? To be more precise, 22 kilometers, it was this figure that was announced by the director of the museum, Mr. M.B. Piotrovsky, in an interview in the summer of 2019. There only the length of the air ducts of the heating system is more than 10 kilometers. So that you understand for comparison and understanding, the length of the basement is comparable to the length of the walls of all the corridors and halls of the Hermitage (Winter Palace) building itself. There are 24 kilometers of them. There are 24 kilometers of walls at the top, and 22 kilometers of basements underground. And according to the official history, such a structure was built in just 8 years. With columns, stairs, statues and complete interior decoration. And the interior decoration there hoo! As K.S. Stanislavsky said, I don’t believe it. I would very much like to know where these 22 kilometers are looping underground, how many levels are there and at what depth. But this information is not available. Twice I made a request to the administration of the museum, while they are silent.
Next, about the basements. Do you know that the basements of the Peter and Paul Fortress are also long? Now there, at great depths, they dug up some kind of room and they claim that this is a barracks. Do you know why you decided it was a barracks? Because they found a bed in the room. Rather, the remains of the bed. The logic is deadly. There are no words. They would find a spoon, they would say that this is a dining room. In general, they have been digging a lot in Petropavlovka for a long time. And so that neither the public nor history buffs learn anything superfluous. For example, it became known only under the pressure of the public that the remains of a tree-embankment were excavated under the Menshikov bastion. By the way, at a depth of 9 meters. It is below the level of the bottom of the Neva.Who do you think, when and why made clay-wooden bastions (not foundations!) At a depth of 9 meters? To listen to the explanations of official historians, I think we would hear funny versions. But they are silent. They simply state the fact of the excavated bastions.
We continue about the excavations. Several years ago there was good material about excavations on Okhta. There was a lot of noise due to the fact that initially it was decided to build a Gazprom tower in this place, but the public was outraged, the tower was built in another place, and archaeological excavations took place on Okhta. They revealed traces of several eras, so the area was well settled. The only question is about dating. Official dates should be ignored, they are tied to anything but logic. In my opinion, the most interesting thing about these finds is snow. Imagine, archaeologists in July, in a 30-degree heat from under the wooden rubble at a depth of 3-4 meters, shoveled snow and made snowmen!
It's hard to explain. But you can. If we assume that at the time of the death of the city there was a mud-ice mudflow and it was terribly cold. For example minus 100 degrees. With the accumulation of a sufficiently large mass above cold ice and snow, and even more so covered with a cold debris blanket 3-4 meters thick, and even inside some wooden room, according to the principle of a refrigerator, the safety of snow can be quite long. Hundreds of years. Certainly not thousands. 4 thousand years from the official date of the formation of the Neva, and even more so 12 thousand years from the period of glaciation, even in such conditions the snow would not have survived. But if this period is reduced to several centuries, then it is quite possible.
Further about the foundations. It is impossible not to mention the most powerful foundation for the tower (bell tower) of the Smolny Cathedral. I did not find an official confirmation of the existence of such a foundation with measurements and technical justification, but here help came from our beloved church. The Russian Orthodox Church was inflamed with the desire to build the same tower. So the foundation for it is most likely really there, and it is rumored to be extremely powerful, granite. The bell tower should be 168 meters high. And it will look something like this.
It is believed that the author of the project Rastrelli and the type of bell tower were not made in the 18th century due to the fact that the money ran out. But this is not the case. Smolny Cathedral, this is also an antediluvian heritage, it is a pagan temple of the Mother of God of Mokos. I have a separate article on this cathedral. In part 1, I showed an example with a granite canopy from this cathedral. By the way, on one side of the cathedral there is an elevation, this is the drift from the flow of water during the breakthrough of the Neva. Rastrelli was too lazy to clean it off and therefore now on different sides of the cathedral there are different numbers of steps at the entrances.
Let's move from the foundations on land to the water area. There are also ancient foundations there. For example, let's take the Powder Fort, it is next to Kronstadt, the closest to St. Petersburg.
Notice how it is built. The middle part is ancient, it is limestone. Outside, it is also ennobled with new limestone. Relatively new, of course, he is 160 years old. Above is a brick, by the way, the thickness of the brick walls is 2 meters. Along the water's edge, limestone is lined with granite blocks, this is a protection from waves. I did not climb inside, but they say there used to be bottomless cellars, now everything is filled up. Now what, in fact, is unusual about him. From this fort, old foundations run under the water in a strict geometric direction, with right angles and turns. I swam the fort three times on a boat with an echo sounder. The foundations are very powerful, about 3-4 meters wide, they go far enough to the sides, for tens of meters. One gets the impression that this fort was built on the remnants of some ancient large structure. Yes, I forgot, the foundations are stone. In one place, almost at the very fort, the foundation comes out close to the surface, the stones are large, some up to a meter in diameter. Some of these foundations are now clearly visible on satellite maps. In the area closest to the fort, in the 19th century, protective fences were built on these foundations, from waves and wind. Shelters for moored ships.
And the Powder Fort is not unique. Most of the other forts on the southern flank also bear traces of an ancient character. As in the case of the Powder Fort, many have remnants of old foundations. And they are also visible on satellite maps. And on these outliers, protective barriers with gates for the passage of ships were also equipped. On some forts, these barriers have survived to this day. Mainly on the forts of the northern chain. At the same Fort Obruchev or the First Northern Fort, whose photos I have already shown in part 1 of the article. By the way, it is Fort Obruchev that is most likely really a remake. In general, the entire northern chain of forts has all the signs of a remake. That is, those time frames that have been officially announced. At least the defensive part - casemates, walls and caponiers - have no traces of an ancient character. And granite has no traces of great erosion. And these forts are not on the old maps. There is one very interesting document though. Defensive scheme of the Kronstadt fortress, published in Paris, presumably in 1854. Then there was the Eastern War, we know as the Crimean War (October 1853 - February 1856).
This diagram is interesting in that it depicts the entire chain of northern forts. However, according to the official history, they were built in 1855-1856. And some even later. On the diagram, we already see forts with stone walls. The inconsistency. It is also interesting that this diagram does not depict protective fences from waves and wind. None of the forts. Strange, but here you can make an admission that they were built later. From 1855 until the beginning of the 20th century, all the forts around Kronstadt were actively rebuilt. By the way, the shape of the southern forts also surprises me. I can easily identify only three forts. Pavel I, Plague (Alexander I) and Kronshlot. At the same time, the Plague One is out of place. And it cannot be confused with any, it is unique. It can be assumed that the author of the drawing knew about its existence, but did not know its location. But this is unlikely. Most likely, this fort existed in two copies and the second was later dismantled, but history says nothing about this. In any case, I did not come across such information. It is an oval three-story building in the center of the diagram. The rest of the forts now have other forms of defensive fortifications. Several years ago I wrote an article dedicated to Fort Paul the First, you can read it at your leisure, there are many interesting photos. By the way, a couple of years ago, officials and business unexpectedly drew attention to the forts. Some of the forts were quickly bought by private traders, and they promise to restore them. Excursions are organized to some forts, in some places even cafes have been stuck. I personally don't like it. At the same Northern Fort, for example, I have not yet seen any hints of restoration, however, there is no way to go fishing or a barbecue, barriers have been set up and guards are sitting in the booth. Earlier on weekends on good weather there was a full house, now there is no one, a restricted area.
Well, the cherry on the cake. Pay attention to the lighthouse. He is on the first bastion, on the right in the diagram. In its place, where it still stands. The Friedrichstadt lighthouse is called. True, now it is in the version built in 1862-63, metal, or rather cast iron. But not the point. But the point is that on the French map it is in its correct place, but on the Russian map of the same 1850s, it is not drawn correctly. On the second bastion. See for yourself. Clickable.
Also, pay attention to the fact that there is no Plague Fort on the Russian map (Alexander the First). Although, even according to the official history, it has been for a long time. There are no northern forts. And in French they are. Do you know why? Because the Russian map was drawn much later than this period and it was drawn either by an ignoramus or by a sent Cossack. But they pass it off as the original and vtyuhivayut convincing that it was in fact. And the last thing on this map. Look where St. Petersburg is drawn. Ships are sailing there. In fact, the city is elsewhere.To get to the city, you need to swim not up the picture, but to the right, strictly along the elongated axis of Kotlin Island.
Now to the written sources. I already wrote about the fairy tale of M.D. Chulkov in part 2 of the article. Something that happened in other parts, the same cards, for example, all sections in this article overlap. There is a very interesting document. Ancient Russian Idrography is called. The edition of 1773 and later ones, already corrected, have survived. The 1773 edition indicates that this is a reprint from an earlier 1627 edition. Whether there were any changes in the text is not clear. The 1627 edition is also supposed to be a reprint from an earlier edition. In general, fog. Karamzin, Lomonosov, Tatishchev, Miller, and apparently many others were also involved in this hydrography. They tried to understand its original source, but in vain. Especially considering that changes and additions were made to each republished version (including new territories).
I will show you what Kotlino lake is. This is the current Gulf of Finland. Midnight countries are north, midday countries are south. In Ukraine and Belarus, they still say so.
The study of the sediment layer in St. Petersburg has been engaged for a long time. In particular, there is a document from the 19th century. Dated in 1826 by V.N. Berg. It describes the sediment layers in different parts of the city. Somewhere they are half a meter, somewhere two meters, and in the area of St. Isaac's Cathedral they are already 4, 2 meters (14 feet). Which, in general, is logical, because it is near the Neva.
A very interesting record of millions of cubic fathoms of sand removed from one street. Here I want to note that one cubic fathom is 8 cubic meters and in the case of sand it is 15 tons. If the sand is wet. And he could not help but be wet. That is, one cubic fathom of sand is even more than the maximum carrying capacity of the KAMAZ dump truck. You can imagine the amount of sand removed from just one street. Millions of KAMAZ trucks. And then estimate how much could have been taken out from all over the city. It was taken out, not brought, as we have been taught all our lives. Personally, the numbers in my head do not fit. To understand what 8 million cubic meters is, this is 1 square kilometer with a sediment thickness of 8 meters. If we take the thickness of the sediment at 2 meters, then this is already 4 square kilometers. However, I would have little faith in these figures. This very V.N. Berg most likely passes off what he wants as valid or uses unverified information. Somewhere I heard something from someone, something in addition I composed and wrote. All the fiction of the past is in this vein. Part of this nonsense, I sorted out in a series of articles on the development of granite during the construction of St. Isaac's Cathedral. And historians today believe these writings literally to the point. And do not care what is written nonsense. Once written, then it was so. For us, sane people, it is only important that the sand and mud (clay) were taken out of the city and the volume of this work was quite large.
Now let's get back to the annals.
In part 4 of the article, I showed that the chronicles describe earthquakes, especially in 1230. I would like to point out right away that the dating in the annals is conditional. In the very first chronicles, there were exclusively dates tied to pagan holidays, which for the most part were tied to astronomical dates. Then pagan and Christian holidays appeared in parallel. Then they began to simply indicate the holidays, like the same Shrovetide or Easter, for example, however, they were written according to pagan or Christian rules no longer specified. All the chronicles that have survived to us were already written by Christian monks, who heaped the devil knows what in these chronicles. The same Nestor for example. At the same time, he wrote so many nonsense that already starting from the 15th century, later scribes of the chronicles tried to somehow make ends meet. At the same time, periodically some particularly advanced scribal monk declared that he had finally figured out the dating and wrote the chronicle correctly. And, of course, in the light of the latest interpretations of the Holy Scriptures and the last instructions of the "Holy Synod".In the 18-19-20 centuries, historians also joined the chroniclers. Tatishchev, Karamzin, Soloviev and so on. Not without the Germans. For example, the authors of the New Chronologist A. Fomenko and G. Nosovsky prove that the Radziwill Chronicle in its current form was written in the 18th century (in 1767), and the Ipatiev, Laurentian and Trinity-Sergius Chronicle are only replicated versions of the Radziwill Chronicle. Only in these documents is the Tale of Bygone Years with the Norman theory of the vocation of Rurik. There we also read the names of the modern European months of the year.
Because of all this leapfrog with holidays and other sets of nonsense, we get the fact that in different chronicles the same princes have different years of birth and death, different places of life (cities of government) and all sorts of having three children at puberty. However, the very fact of certain events should not be denied, it was hardly invented. It makes no sense to invent about earthquakes, corcodiles devouring people, Batu's campaigns and other ice battles. You can think of a snake and a skull, especially since Oleg was a pagan and he needs to ascribe a terrible death as an infidel. And the fact that snakes do not live in turtles and other bones, they are not maggots, and even more so they do not eat dead meat, then who cares. And Oleg, neither give nor take, walked barefoot, the prince naturally did not have money for sandals. Anyway. From the lyrics, let's get down to business.
Let's talk about Batu and the battle on the ice.
And so Batu. There is a funny episode in his life story. When, in the conditional year 1238 (as in the annals), he went to war through the cities of Russia, burned and plundered several cities, moved to Novgorod and, before reaching it, either 100 or 200 km, turned sharply and, sparkling with his heels, fled into the Don steppes … Each historian considers it his duty to write his own version of the explanation of this phenomenon. They have been writing for 300 years. Apparently the same amount will be written. I don’t want to compose. If I were an official historian and had a salary, I would also write a large and thick book on this matter. And I would have received an Oscar, ugh, damn it, some kind of scientific degree and would be terribly proud of it. He puffed up his cheeks, raised his eyebrows and, in a notational tone, would lecture on this matter to various boobies and other idiots. However, I am not on the payroll, and for this reason we will honestly separate flies from cutlets.
What is the point. As I said, for no apparent reason, Batu fled to the Don with an army. He escaped urgently, not reaching the city 100 or 200 km. Such a difference in numbers is precisely in view of the fact that for 300 years there has been a dispute over this distance with foam at the mouth. There they argue not only about kilometers, they even cannot find the right road there. What is important to us. The first is the time period. Even if this is really 1238, then this is 8 years after the earthquake which was mentioned in 4 parts of the article. The month is the same. It's March. Historians argue over the numbers for 300 years, dancing there from mid-March to mid-April. Again, some chronicles give the chronicles of Batu himself, other chronicles of Novgorod, where the information naturally came with a delay. In the same way as in the case of the earthquake. There, too, in the case of pagan Easter or Annunciation, we get the vernal equinox or March 25. If someone wants to read more about Batu, all versions of the official pseudo-scientific school, then here's a link, the material is very good. The author is trying to somehow systematize all the options. So, what do you yourself think, what could have prompted Batu to deploy the army, having almost reached the goal of the campaign? Spring thaw? No. After all, he fled through the muddy roads. By the way, before that, he took and burned cities in winter. Official pseudo-scientific historians naively believe, and they are trying to sniff out the fact that the winters were fierce then and there was snow up to their ears. And this did not prevent Batu from riding horses across the floor of Russia. And then, you see, it got warmer, the snow melted and the army turned out to be unfit for action. And there were no roads, only mud and windbreaks. Novgorod is a hole. Allegedly. In fact, there were already 4 roads there. The next guess is hunger? Stupidity, ahead of him was the richest city. And behind the plundered cities.The carts were packed with fodder and other necessary belongings. Otherwise, there would be no campaign. And then he almost reached, turned around and ran away. Too big losses? After Torzhok, which he took either 5 or 15 days. If there were too great losses, then in the direction of Novgorod, he would not have moved further. And he moved and walked at least half the way. Or almost reached, if we accept the version of those who write about 100 km. In general, all the versions that official historians have been trying to come up with for 300 years are just stupidity. In fact, my explanation is simple. If we assume that Batu was hit by an earthquake, then the answer is obvious. Batu, like a normal military leader, had to have a head patrol, scouts. These are the ones who walk in front of the main column. Surely they have already reached the outskirts of Novgorod or the banks of the Volkhov. And on their own skin, they felt all the delights of the ups and downs of the earth's crust with the Volkhov current reversed. There, apparently, there should have been a flood of catastrophic proportions. Streams of water from Ladoga poured not only into the Baltic, but also into Novgorod. Most likely the very sediments that are now being excavated by archaeologists in Novgorod are the traces of that flood. There was a lot of dirt, piles of wooden flooring were stacked.
The second probable assumption is that Batu was informed that there was nothing to rob there. The city is in desolation, devastation, few people, the consequences of an earthquake (and flooding). Surely there was a pestilence, some kind of halera.
I see no other logical explanation.
Now about Alexander Nevsky. Everything is the same here. If we omit the fables of the chroniclers about the Crow or Crow stone and ice, then in fact, having separated the flies from the cutlets, we get a description of two events. First, this is a kind of battle on the Neva, at the mouth of the Izhora. The second is on Lake Peipsi. Now let's figure it out. Historians have no less versions of these events than in the case of Batu, and there, too, you can safely compose a scientific work, receive an Oscar and rest on your laurels. Or, at least, write an author's manual and teach students on it. And so in fact. In the case of the Battle of the Neva, we have the fact of the Swedes. And a Swedish fortress. Moreover, this fortress is new. Once again - new. This is the most important fact. And, apparently, the first in those parts of the new shores. Alexander, the prince, the magpie whispered in his ear that the Swedes had muddied something there, the ships had caught up, they knocked with axes, they were cutting down the forest. Alexander is no fool to know, unexpectedly early in the morning he attacked the construction site, no one was waiting for him, all the builders were still sleeping in their booths and trailers. I took everything that was bad and even good and took it to my place. The Swedes went home. It should be understood that the Neva was not yet a river, but was a wide strait. As on the maps that I showed in part 4 of the article.
In the same year, 1240, the Germans pushed on. The Germans conditionally, there were the Balts with other chudyu, they formally obeyed the Teutons. Two troops. One took Pskov. Well, like Pskov, then it was called Pleskov. But for some reason, Pskov is written everywhere in the annals, oh, these scribes. OK. Another army took Koporye. This is my guess, because officially the Germans allegedly just founded the fortress. True, who needs a fortress in an empty field where there are no rivers and roads, and even 12 km from the seashore, is not officially explained. From Koporye, the German army walked to Novgorod and then fled back. Everything is like a carbon copy with Batu. The Germans also did not want to go to Novgorod. Apparently in 1240 there was still devastation in Novgorod, swamps with flooring instead of sidewalks and roads. And some halera is not over yet. By the way, Prince Alexander, who was Nevsky, lived in Ladoga at that time. And he ran to the Swedes who were building a fortress at the mouth of Izhora from Ladoga early in the morning. So, after 2 years, by the beginning of 1242, apparently Novgorod was slightly cured of the consequences of the impact of the elements. The river banks settled down, the ruined huts were rebuilt, the roads were paved, new crossings were built where necessary. The people, scattered around the neighborhood, began to return (officially, the army of Alexander included squads from different lands).Alexander quickly freed Pleskov (we will call the city by its own name) and agreed with the Germans about a duel. But further it is interesting. Personally, I read 4 versions where there could be a battle. Moreover, there are 4 versions of the battle on the ice. This is the Baltic, and in two different places, this is actually Lake Peipsi and the Neva. Yes, yes, there is a version as on the Neva. In addition to these four versions, there are others. For example, that the battle was on land. Neither the Novgorod, nor the Laurentian Chronicle, nor The Life of Alexander Nevsky, nor the Order's Chronicle of Grandmasters, nor the Elder Livonian Chronicle of Rhymes mention that someone fell through the ice. And the Dorpat Chronicle directly writes that the Germans defended themselves against the Russians. Allegedly, it was the Russians who attacked the Estonians, forcing them to pay tribute. And the brothers of the Order have already stood up for those, which explains their small number.
- The Russians had such an army that, perhaps, sixty people from one German attacked. The brothers fought hard. Yet they were overpowered. Some of the Dorpat people withdrew from the battle to save themselves. They were forced to retreat. There, twenty brothers were killed and six were captured.
For those who are interested in the official versions, you can read here.
By the way, about the German Order. Well, there is the Teutonic Order, the Livonian Order as part of the Teutonic. A bit of linguistics. I have to return to her again. The word "Order" is one of the variations of the name of a piece of land. That is, it must be correctly understood as the Teutonic land, the Livonian land. The Horde is also here. Gold Horde, White Horde, Blue Horde and so on. This is the Golden Land, White Land, Blue Land. We still use the word "city" and "vegetable garden" from this root. And clan, relatives, breed, tool, artel, etc. - all from the same place, these are the words of one of the phrases. And the Vedic Midgard is also from there. In the direct meaning of "land", the word "horde" is still preserved in the Arabic language. Hence, for example, Jordan. And another interesting thing, which, too, very few people know. The Jordan River, its name, is shaped like the Jordan Dan. I have already explained about the "hordes", now about the "dan". "Dan" go "don" is one of the ancient names of the river. Like the horde, it is from an ancient proto-language, once common to all. Hence the Don, Dnieper, Danube, Dniester, Desna and so on. By the way, London is also from here. This is the bosom of the don, that is, the city in the lower reaches of the river. Later on our territory the word "horde" was replaced by the word "rus", which means "light". Moreover, light in the meaning of earth. Holy Russia means holy land. The king of all Russia means the king of the whole earth. However, it is very important here not to confuse the words rus and ros. They sound similar, but have completely different meanings. Ros means water, and water in the meaning of movement. And the word Russia literally means a place where there is a lot of water, that is, rivers. Initially, this was the name of the modern Valdai Upland. It is also called the Russian Upland (distorted from the Ros Upland), from where the two main dews flow - Velikaya Dew, this is now the Volga, and Malaya Dew, this is now the Dnieper. And along these rivers Malorosy and Velikorosy lived. By the way, until recently the Neman was called Ros, and the Poles still call it that.
So, apparently it is necessary to move on to the final part. We will draw conclusions. Otherwise it can go on forever. At the beginning of the article, I promised to be as short as possible, but it turned out like the classics - Ostap suffered …
Continued in the next part. We will generalize and draw conclusions.
Links to go:
- 1 part.
- part 2.
- part 3.
- part 4.