Table of contents:
- 1. Tree houses of the Korowai tribe (Indonesia)
- 2. Crannock - Irish "house on the water"
- 3. Stone houses kazhun and klochan
- 4. Boat-house lepa-lepa
- 5. Fortified houses of Tulou in Fujian and Guangdong provinces (China)
- 6. Huts without walls in Samoa
- 7. Fabulous houses of the Batak people (Indonesia)
- 8. Triangular houses of palleiro on the island of Madeira (Portugal)
Video: Rare and colorful national dwellings of different peoples
2023 Author: Seth Attwood | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 22:42
From time immemorial, in whatever corner of the globe people have settled, they have sought to acquire a home that would save them from predatory animals, belligerent neighbors and bad weather. Taking into account different climatic zones, natural resources and traditions, each nation has its own idea of the reliability of housing and even its prestige.
Although some types of houses have long ceased to be built, nevertheless, the originality of their style and special flavor deserve our attention.
1. Tree houses of the Korowai tribe (Indonesia)
The Papuan tribe Korowai or Kolufo, living in Indonesia, has not yet seen civilization, and they consider life in trees to be the only way to escape from predatory animals, neighboring tribes and evil spirits. Since ancient times, the people of this tribe have learned to build huts on banyan trees.
They first cut off the tops of an adult tree, and then collect walls and roofs from its branches, which they cover with branches. Most often, huts are located at a height of 10-15 meters, which are very difficult to reach, because they are connected to the ground by a flimsy staircase, and an unprepared person will definitely not be able to climb it.
Remarkable:The status of tribal members can be determined by the height at which the dwelling is located. The higher the house, the more influence a person has on fellow tribesmen. Precedents have been recorded when the hut was 50 meters above the ground.
2. Crannock - Irish "house on the water"
In Ireland, you can still see interesting houses called krannong, which are located among lakes and ponds. People did not always manage to find a natural island, so they had to create a wooden platform on high supports. This location was considered the safest, although it was settled in shallow water.
The house itself, in most cases, was built from local wood and began to build it around the hearth. It was possible for strangers to get to the krannong only by boat on the water, but this path was cut off by wild animals. Some settlements had their own bridges on supports, but they were closed, and in case of danger, they were additionally guarded.
3. Stone houses kazhun and klochan
Since ancient times, stone houses of a cylindrical or dome shape were built in Europe. On the territory of modern Croatia, in Istria. For example, you can see a stone structure called kajun.
The cylindrical building with a conical roof was erected without the use of any adhesive mortar, using the dry masonry method. To make the house more stable and safe, no windows were made in it. Initially, the kazhun was a full-fledged dwelling, but over time it was used as a household building.
Dwellings were built in a similar way in the other end of Europe, in Ireland, only their houses had a domed shape and were called klochan. In the stone hut, massive walls were made, the thickness of which reached one and a half meters. The only thing is that in the Irish buildings, in addition to the entrance, narrow slits-windows and a chimney were provided. Such huts were built by hermit monks who prefer an ascetic lifestyle, so there are no special amenities provided in them.
4. Boat-house lepa-lepa
In Southeast Asia, the Bajao people, who are also called "sea gypsies", live. So they came up with an unusual dwelling lepa-lepa, which is a boat, because they live among the waters of the Pacific Ocean in the "Coral Triangle" (between Borneo, the Philippines and the Solomon Islands). Their floating home is in two parts.
One part is the living space where bajao sleep, and in the other half of the boat there is a kitchen and pantries, where they also store tackle. These people go to the shore only for food, water or to the market in order to sell fish and other gifts from the depths of the ocean, as well as bury the dead or renovate their home.
5. Fortified houses of Tulou in Fujian and Guangdong provinces (China)
In the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong, in ancient times, unusual dwellings appeared, which were invented by representatives of the Hakka people. To protect them from looters and constant invasions of neighbors, they began to build fortified houses of a round or square shape, in which a solid wall was erected outside with a thickness of about 2 meters at the base.
The upper part of the structure was built from a solution of clay, sand and lime, which, when dried, formed strong and warm walls. Windows and doors from many rooms overlooked only the inner courtyard-well; on the outer part of the tulou one can see only narrow loopholes. As a rule, a whole clan lived in Tulou, sometimes its number reached 500 people.
6. Huts without walls in Samoa
Looking at the strange fale dwellings that are being built by the inhabitants of the island state of Samoa, in the South Pacific, it seems that these people have no secrets from others and enemies also do not exist. However, as well as personal life, because their houses resemble open garden pavilions.
On the other hand, a minimum of building materials is required - several wooden pillars located in a circle or perimeter, and a gable roof created from the leaves of a coconut palm. Relative privacy is provided by mats (if desired), which are pulled between the supports, but the stability of the structure is maintained with the help of ropes, woven with threads, entangling coconuts. Public buildings were built on the same principle.
7. Fabulous houses of the Batak people (Indonesia)
In the north of the island of Sumatra, the Batak people live, whose dwellings are the complete opposite of the fale, since their houses have no windows or doors. Although outwardly, these fabulous huts look more than attractive.
The narrow, long structures with saddle roofs covered with sugar palm fiber are more like the houses of fabulous fairies, only it is not so attractive to live in them. Not only can you get into the house only through a hatch in the floor, but you will also have to live in constant darkness.
Most often, traditional Batak dwellings are installed on supports 2 meters high, which makes them look like boats floating in the air (they are also called boat houses). The surviving buildings have an impressive length (up to 60 meters!), Especially those buildings that were designed to accommodate more than 10 families are impressive.
8. Triangular houses of palleiro on the island of Madeira (Portugal)
On one of the most picturesque islands in Portugal, in the village of Santana, you can see charming A-thatched houses called palleiro. The distinctive feature of these buildings was not only the shape, but also the brightly painted walls.
Starting from the 16th century, local farmers lived in such huts, then they turned into pantries or sheds, but they did not lose their attractiveness. Now palleiro is almost the main attraction of the island of Madeira, given that their image can be seen on all tourist goods without exception.
Throughout the history of their existence, people have been trying to create shelters that could shelter them from adversity and protect them from wild animals and their own kind. As a rule, during the construction of a dwelling, the main criteria were taken into account: the climatic zone, the availability of natural materials, tools and traditions. How did this affect the appearance of buildings and their design, we will try to figure it out in our review
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