Dean's centrifugal machine broke the laws of mechanics
Dean's centrifugal machine broke the laws of mechanics

Norman Dean's invention attracted the interest of scientists and journalists from many countries. For example, what is said about him in the August issue of the famous French popular science magazine "Sians av."

Dine's discovery is perhaps the most striking in the history of mechanics after Newton formulated his laws in 1667.

In the summer of 1956, Norman Dean, a self-taught person from Washington, submitted to NASA (the American government agency for space exploration) a project of an unusual aircraft. Although the model seemed to be working properly, the engineers did not even begin to understand it: Dean's car contradicted the principles of classical mechanics, which means it was not worth wasting time on it.

Then Dean, not in the least discouraged, applied to the patent office for a patent for "a device for converting rotational motion into rectilinear motion." He failed to obtain a patent for three years.

Meanwhile, Dean turned to the British and German governments, offering them his invention. However, to no avail. After all, Dean not only denied Newton's law of action and reaction, but also generally did not recognize mathematics. He was treated like the annoying inventor of a perpetual motion machine.

American Campbell got acquainted with Dean's car, examined it in action and published an article in defense of the inventor in the Analog magazine. Soon, others became interested in the machine, much more revolutionary in concept than the steam engine. Including seven large firms.

Carl Isakson, an engineer at the Massachusetts firm Wellesley Engineering, designed a new model of Dean's car. The apparatus brought into rotation, however, did not take off, but its weight noticeably decreased.

We have asked for a copy of the patent to be delivered to us. But the US Patent Office refused to issue us a new copy. Monsieur Dean, in turn, refused to answer the questions of our correspondent in the United States: the invention had become secret.

In the meantime, mechanics armed with mathematics came to the rescue to explain, finally, what was the matter.

Dean's car turned out to be such a tough nut to crack that, in addition to the three basic laws of mechanics, they proposed the Fourth Law of Motion.

It is formulated as follows: “the energy of a system cannot change instantly. It takes a certain period of time, depending on the properties of the system and always different from zero."

That is, action and reaction are not simultaneous! This fact leads to colossal consequences. For example, the apparent mass of a body in motion changes while this motion is taking place.

As a result, Newton's second law F = mw takes the form F = mw + Aw ', where A is a dimensionless coefficient, and w 'is the rate of change of acceleration.

Most movements in nature and technology are performed with constant acceleration, and then this additional term is equal to zero.

Some American experts argue that the hitherto unexplained anomalies observed in the launch of guided missiles and in the ejection of pilots are well explained by the new law.

According to Dr. William O. Davis, head of research at New York-based Geek and a former member of the famous Los Alamos atomic research laboratory, the Fourth Law of Motion explains well some anomalies in the behavior of materials when tested for strength.

You may ask how astronomers, who have been using Newton's three laws for three centuries, did not notice their relative inaccuracy!

As we have already said, this is due to the fact that celestial bodies move, as a rule, with constant or slightly varying speeds and accelerations.

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Our surprise is not unlike the surprise of electrical engineers when they discovered in the last century that alternating current can be used, even though its average value is zero. Their mistake is similar to that of the Newtonian engineers. They overlooked the fact that there is a pause between movement in one direction and the other, when the current is not zero.

It is interesting that the laws of the Fourth Law of Motion were first brought to the attention of scientists all over the world two years ago by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kozyrev. Indeed, Kozyrev was the first to dare to suggest that Newton's concept of the simultaneity of action and reaction is wrong.

Kozyrev even suggested that the Earth itself was Dean's machine. Considering that the Northern and Southern hemispheres are not the same in weight, then the globe is also a kind of rotating eccentric. The brave astronomer even assumed that it would be possible to use the energy generated by this system.

It is believed that Dean's machine may be the first true anti-gravity apparatus that does not require jet mass. Such a device in conjunction with an atomic engine would be an ideal spacecraft.

Pages of mathematical formulas and the opinions of knowledgeable experts confirm that Dean's machine and the Fourth Law of Motion are serious things. And we hope to see this all-new car in action.

As for Norman Dean himself, then perhaps he is not inferior in genius to Sir Isaac Newton.

Description of Norman Dean's patent is available in the All-Union Patent and Technical Library (Moscow, Serov proezd, 4). Anyone who wants to get to know him better or wants to experiment on his own can order a photocopy. The postcard should state "US Patent Class 74-112, # 2, 886, 976."

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The formulas, deduced by engineer Davis, a former deputy director of the US Air Force's research program, take into account the existence of the Fourth Law of Mechanics. The first line contains the equations of ordinary kinematics. The expressions on the left are formulas of classical mechanics, on the right are formulas taking into account the effect of the rate of change in acceleration.

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In such a joking manner, the artist of the Siansa av magazine depicted the principle of the Dean apparatus.

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Is it possible to move in space using only internal forces?

Newton's third law "Action is equal to reaction" inexorably suppresses such attempts. Until now, only Baron Munchausen, who pulled himself out of the swamp by his hair, managed to overcome the operation of this law.

The second such person is the American inventor Norman Dean, who back in 1956 proposed an apparatus that would allow, according to the author's idea, to fly, starting from himself.

The proposal was so incredible that for three years the inventor was denied a patent.

And only after scientists in many laboratories of the world were convinced of the reality of the invention, it received the right to recognition.

However, neither the author nor the scientists were able to reveal the secret of his action. The reason for his violation of the existing law of mechanics is still unknown.

So how does Dean's apparatus work and how does it work?

According to its name, it serves to transform the rotational movement of individual parts of the apparatus into a rectilinear movement of the apparatus itself.

It is known from mechanics that when any body rotates, centrifugal forces arise.

If the body is well balanced, that is, the center of gravity of the body exactly coincides with the axis of rotation, then the resultant of all centrifugal forces, as you know, is zero.

Otherwise, in the presence of eccentricity, that is, a certain distance between the axis of rotation and the center of gravity, a centrifugal force arises, tending to tear the body away from the axis of rotation. This force breaks bearings, loosens structures, in a word, in most cases it is extremely harmful. The magnitude of this force can be very large.Suffice it to recall that at 3000 rpm and an eccentricity of half a meter, the centrifugal force exceeds the weight of the rotating body by almost 4500 times!

It was this power that Dean used.

As a source of obtaining centrifugal force, he took two unbalanced eccentric bodies rotating at the same speed in opposite directions.

By connecting their axes of rotation with a light but rigid jumper, Dean made sure that the resulting force acts vertically.

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Indeed, from Fig. 1 it can be seen that the horizontal components of the centrifugal forces of both eccentrics are mutually balanced and at any angle of rotation their resultant is equal to zero.

The vertical components of these forces create a resultant force that changes according to the sine law and reaches its maximum when the rods holding the eccentrics are perpendicular to the bulkhead (Fig. 2).

In Dean's apparatus, a pair of eccentrics was originally freely suspended by springs from the apparatus frame. With this design, the jumper vibrated vertically with high frequency and force. However, as you would expect, the frame itself was completely motionless.

Then Dean, at the moment of passage of the bulkhead through the middle position upwards, began to rigidly bind it to the frame of the apparatus, resting the bulkhead against the instantly extended transverse frames (Fig. 3). As the inventor believed, by the correct choice of the moment when these supports were extended, it was possible to achieve that the apparatus began to move upward.

And the most striking thing is that this turned out to be true. Dean connected six such devices together, but shifted the location of the eccentrics on each of them at an angle of 60.

Experiments have shown that such a combined apparatus has a constant lifting force. Depending on its value, the apparatus will hang in the air or rush upward. It can be made to move in the horizontal direction, only the plane of rotation of the eccentrics should be deflected from the vertical.

Does this not violate the law of conservation of energy? As if not. After all, the energy for lifting the apparatus is provided by the motor that rotates the eccentrics.

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