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Secret submarine base in Balaklava underground
Secret submarine base in Balaklava underground
Anonim

The underground submarine base at Balaklava is one of the most famous relics of the Cold War from the Soviet Union. Once this top-secret complex was created in the event of the last war of mankind - the Third World War, with the widespread use of nuclear weapons. Fortunately, a new world massacre did not happen in the 20th century, and the country of the Soviets did not exist at all. For these reasons, today Balaklava remains a mute reminder of the fears and ambitions of the superpowers of the last century.

Shadow of World Carnage

Nuclear weapons have changed the face of war

In America, all history is divided before the Civil War and after. In the domestic open spaces, citizens psychologically divide history into time before and after World War II. In Germany, a similar attitude in the 30-year war. And if you think about it, the creation of nuclear weapons, as well as the subsequent bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, divided the history of the whole world into "before" and "after".

It is difficult and at the same time scary to imagine how world history would have developed if such a powerful weapon had remained in the hands of just one state. By some cynical irony, the "Long Peace" in Europe is caused by almost the most inhuman thing. Contrary to Margaret Thatcher's theses about the need to reduce nuclear potential, nuclear weapons remain the cudgel that protects at least some peace.

The situation was constantly heating up

This may sound somewhat cynical, but the current conflicts between Russia and the United States are actually quite "light", relative to those that arose between the USSR and the United States after World War II. The creation of nuclear weapons triggered both nuclear mania and paranoia. For example, in the United States on December 19, 1949, a plan was developed for a preventive nuclear strike against the Soviet Union in the event of its aggression into Western Europe, the Middle East or Japan. This initiative is called "Operation Dropshot".

The Berlin Wall did not divide Germany

The main objective of Operation Dropshot was to destroy the Soviet industrial complex within one month. For this, it was ordered to carry out massive bombing of the cities of the USSR using 29 thousand tons of conventional bombs and 300 units of 50-kilogram nuclear bombs. About 100 of the largest cities in the Soviet Union were selected as targets. Ballistic missiles will appear only in 10 years. The "nuclear blackmail" of the USSR by the United States completely lost all its effect only in 1956, when the country's strategic aviation was able to prove that, if necessary, it could fly overseas to deliver a retaliatory strike.

Accordingly, one should not think that the USSR did not have its own "Dropshot". Although the Soviet initiatives were for the most part in the nature of retaliatory measures, they, like the American ones, did not differ in any humanity.

The enemy does not surrender …

Unique natural place

In the first decades at the time of the creation of the nuclear bomb, mankind was actively trying to understand what the face of a new war would be. At that time, both world wars were still alive in the memory, and therefore the Third did not seem to be something incredible. It is clear that nuclear weapons will primarily be used to destroy industry, military facilities and genocide the population, albeit in a "concomitant" manner. That is why the military began to take measures to protect the most important military facilities.

In 1947, the Leningrad Design Institute Granit developed a project for a naval base to protect the Black Sea submarine fleet in the event of a nuclear war. The project of the complex was personally endorsed by Joseph Stalin.The town of Balaklava was chosen for the construction of a complex with an area of ​​15 thousand square meters. Construction work began in 1953.

The project began under Stalin, and finished already under Khrushchev

Interesting fact:Balaklava was chosen for a reason. It is the ideal natural hideout for the navy. The harbor, just 200-400 meters wide, is perfectly protected from storms and prying eyes. The underground complex was located under Mount Tavros, which became a real find. The thickness of the marble limestone is 126 meters. Thanks to this, the submarine base in Balaklava was able to obtain the first category of anti-nuclear resistance - it can withstand an explosion of up to 100 Kt.

Worked metro workers

Construction work at the secret facility was carried out around the clock. Metro builders from Moscow, Kharkov and Abakan were called for mining operations. Drilling was carried out primarily by the blasting method. Immediately after the removal of soil and rock, the workers installed a metal frame, and only after that they poured concrete of the M400 brand. As a result, the construction of a special shipyard with a dry dock 825 GTS was completed in 1961. The complex could hide from a nuclear strike up to nine small class submarines or seven middle class boats. A year later, the complex was supplemented with a nuclear arsenal.

Interesting fact: The underground base was designed in such a way that in the event of a nuclear war, it could accommodate not only the personnel of the repair complex, but also the military personnel of the nearest units and the civilian population of the city itself.

Top secret

The arms departments were kept secret even after the collapse of the USSR

For the sake of secrecy, the courts entered the complex only at night. One of the most interesting elements of the complex is the Southern Batoport - a large sea gate that helps protect the bay from the damaging effects of a nuclear explosion. By its nature, it is a hollow metal structure with dimensions of 18x14x11 meters and weighing 150 tons. Once upon a time, the entrance to the channel was also covered with a special camouflage net to match the color of the rocks, which was pulled with a winch.

Once a secret facility

All staff members of the Balaklava complex signed a nondisclosure agreement. They were also limited in a number of rights for the duration of work and for another 5 years after dismissal. For example, these citizens were forbidden to travel outside the USSR, including to socialist countries. The facility itself was guarded by three military guard posts. The entire base was divided into multiple levels of secrecy. Interestingly, for easier recognition, some floors and corridors had a special color.

Now everyone can come

All this was necessary so that in the event of a new war, the Soviet Union could retain some of its submarines on the Black Sea, which would later be used for further control of the region. The complex ceased to exist after the collapse of the USSR. In 1995, the last guards were removed from the submarine base. The Arsenal complex with weapons, including nuclear ones, was kept secret for almost ten years. Today, the once secret complex is nothing more than a relic reminiscent of the Cold War.

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