Ancient Roman Pantheon - Temple of All Gods
Ancient Roman Pantheon - Temple of All Gods
Anonim

It would seem, for how many years of existence of the most ancient Temple of all gods - the Pantheon, there should be no secrets and mysteries, but the more time passes, the more questions arise. And all attempts to determine at least the age of the structure or to understand the method of building a unique dome, an analogue of which the earthlings have never been able to create, have so far not been crowned with success.

The Roman Pantheon is an architectural masterpiece of antiquity, one of the most significant landmarks in the world

Despite the venerable age of the Pantheon, it still remains the most mysterious structure on earth, because it was never possible to find out either when it was built or how it was erected.

The hemispherical dome of the Pantheon is an amazing mystery and the world's largest unreinforced ceiling

Especially a lot of questions arise about the huge dome, because even modern builders who know about the intricacies of their business and the possibilities of building materials, practically in unison, assert that it is not possible to build such a miracle. But no matter how they were surprised and talked about the impossibility of creation, the Pantheon still exists and stands in all its glory in the historical region of Rome - Pigna.

The Pantheon was painted by the Dutch painter Willem van Nieulandt II (17th century)

The entire scientific world considers 126 A.D. the date of completion of the construction of such a landmark structure. Although no documentary evidence was ever found, the researchers relied on only a few events described in the annals. They made logical chains, and it is not known for certain whether they are true or not.

Most of the marble, which was actively used for the interior decoration of the temple, has remained unchanged and in perfect condition

But these are not the only oddities and mysteries associated with the construction of the Pantheon, which is considered the crown of the creation of ancient Roman architects. Most of all, it surprises and excites the minds of scientists, and not historians, but engineers and designers, who cannot explain how, almost 2 thousand years ago, ancient architects created a building from brick and concrete, which was common for those times, which has survived to this day.

The wall thickness of the dome at the base is 6 m

And, of course, the dome, which does not leave modern architects in peace, because, as it turned out, they could not create an analogue to it during all this time. The uniqueness of the domed ceiling lies in the fact that there is no reinforcement in its design, which, with a huge diameter of 43.3 m, is a fantasy that contradicts all the laws of physics and the known subtleties of construction.

It is believed that the ancient temple, consisting of a huge rotunda and a portico, was built in 124-126

Interesting fact from Novate.Ru:For those who are not versed in the intricacies and intricacies of construction work and resistance, I would like to clarify that until now on the planet it has not been possible to create such a domed concrete vault due to the impossibility of keeping a large area and weight of material at a height without additional (reinforcing) reinforcing structures or supports. And the most amazing thing in this story is that the service life of even the strongest and most reliable concrete is limited, and after 600 years it completely loses its properties, disintegrating into its constituent particles.

This is what the Roman Pantheon looked like in the 18th century

Of course, chemists were also involved in the solution to the composition of ancient concrete, who determined that the main parts of the structure were made from different solutions. Well, this is understandable, because the base required a stronger structure, and at the very top - a lighter one, so that the dome would not collapse under the weight of its own weight. But even these studies do not explain in any way the creation and such durability of the dome, however, as well as of the entire structure (1900 years!) And, most importantly, does not reveal the secret of calculations and the technology of building the Pantheon.

Despite 2 thousand years of history and constant natural disasters, the Pantheon has been preserved in excellent condition

Considering the seismicity of the zone, fires, constant flooding, 900 years of oblivion and the age of the ancient site, even more questions arise.How could this structure maintain such integrity, because most of the buildings of the Roman period with less ornate and complex architecture have long been turned into ruins. And even the fact that the Pantheon has been reconstructed more than once and has been maintained in good condition in recent years does not in any way explain such resilience. Take the Colosseum, which is not helped by any reconstruction, it is still crumbling, and this process cannot be stopped.

There are no windows in the Roman Pantheon, the light enters through a 6 m diameter hole created at the top of the dome

While all these secrets are being solved by researchers, ordinary tourists can enjoy the amazing harmony of the forms of the Pantheon. And even despite the fact that there are no windows inside the room and light enters only through the hole in the center of the dome (Oculus), you can see its perfect forms and interior details, most of which have not changed since its construction.

The walled dome is designed to create a single cylindrical shell

Of course, the scientists managed to create a projection of this structure and it turned out that the internal space was made in the form of a cylinder with a height equal to the radius of the dome sphere, which is also 43.3 m. And this is not the only surprise: 16 columns supporting the portico were delivered more than a hundred kilometers away. And this despite the fact that the weight of each monolithic granite column is 60 tons.

Now, instead of gods, statues of saints, frescoes, paintings and altars are located in the niches of the Roman Pantheon

There is no evidence that over the long history of its existence the temple has undergone any alterations or cardinal reconstructions, but it is known for certain that sculptures and inscriptions have undergone changes, and this is due to the passage of time and a change in the beliefs of the townspeople. If initially it was a temple in which all the ancient Roman gods were worshiped, then over time it turned into a pagan religious building. By that time, they worshiped only 7 Supreme Gods, to whom marble sculptures were installed in the niches formed earlier.

It is believed that the Roman Pantheon was both a place of worship of the gods and an ancient observatory

Many scientists believe that they were located in a special sequence, and when the sun's rays entered through the hole in the dome, they illuminated only the day gods and at a specific time. This confirms the assumption that the Pantheon was used as both a temple and an observatory.

Only once a year, the sun's rays from inside the temple illuminated the grate at the entrance to the Pantheon (Jakob Alt, 1836)

Interesting fact: The unique light effect can be seen on April 21st. On this day, the Romans celebrated the day of the founding of the city, and the holiday began exactly at noon, when a ray of sun from inside the room fell on the grate above the doorway. It was at this moment that the emperor was always on the doorstep to find himself in the sunlight coming from the temple. So each sovereign tried to rise one step with the gods - the inhabitants of the Pantheon.

For several centuries in a row, services are held in the Pantheon, which was turned into the Church of St. Mary and the Martyrs (Rome)

With the advent of Christianity, the Pantheon was turned into a church, and instead of the Supreme Gods, the Holy Images were installed there. This event took place on May 13, 609, it was then that the Emperor Phoca donated the temple to Boniface IV and the Pope consecrated it as the Christian Church of St. Mary and the Martyrs (Santa Maria ad Martires). In the Middle Ages, the Pantheon also became the burial place of famous people of Italy; it houses the sarcophagi of several kings, cardinals and the outstanding Renaissance artist Raphael.

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