On February 9, to the 100th anniversary of the death of the admiral, the Supreme Ruler of Russia, the documentary “Kolchak's Gold” was shown on the Russia 1 channel. Like all films about the revolution in Russia, of which I was the author, he caused sharp controversy, a clash of opinions. This topic still worries many today, it determines a lot in our attitude to the past, present and future of our country.
Usually I have neither the desire nor the time to enter into an argument with opponents of my point of view on our history, since my colleagues and I strive to substantiate each of our conclusions with documents that we are looking for in Russian and foreign archives, we involve professional historians, authors in each film scientific monographs, the writing of which requires years and years of research work. Opponents, as a rule, have nothing but the fervor of the times of the Komsomol youth and old, long-refuted myths.
But after reading the article Vladimir Pavlenko"State TV has found a new leader for Russia", published on the portal I respect IA REGNUMOn February 10, I decided to answer the author. His article is simply full of lies both about me, and for some reason, and my husband. Z. M. Chavchavadze(although he has nothing to do with the film "Kolchak's Gold"). In terms of form and content, V. Pavlenko's article openly resembles a political denunciation.
I would like to point out right away that, to all appearances, the film itself by V. Pavlenko, if ever, was casually watched. The film began at one forty minutes in the morning from 9 to 10 February, and the next morning his article appeared on the Internet. Maybe he read the announcements, the interview that I gave to the Century portal. But what is interesting, V. Pavlenko hardly touched upon the theme of the film itself.
What did we, the creators of the documentary, want to talk about? By the will of fate, A. V. Kolchak was responsible for most of the gold reserves of the Russian Empire (for 650 million of those rubles), which was captured in Kazan by the detachment of Colonel V. Kappel even before the return of the admiral to Russia. As you know, Russia's gold reserves were one of the largest in the world, and the gold ruble was considered the most reliable currency.
The fight for this gold is a complex tangle of intrigue and passion. Kolchak wanted one thing - for Russian gold to serve the interests of Russia, to do everything he could for this. Thus, as the famous researcher says in our film Alexander Mosyakin, the author of the book "Gold of the Russian Empire and the Bolsheviks", signed his own death warrant …
We are investigating this issue together with renowned scientists, doctors of historical sciences. Vladimir Khandorin, Ruslan Gagkuev, Vasily Tsvetkov, Yuri Krasnov, Pavel Novikov(Irkutsk), candidates of historical sciences Nikita Kuznetsov, Dmitry Petyin(Omsk), ethnographer Vladimir Panasenkov (Omsk) and others. Look at these wonderful scientists, listen to them! Thank God, over the past decades of stability in Russia, there were professionals and local historians-devotees who used this opportunity and carried out a huge research work, found a lot of documents and facts that were previously unknown or were hushed up. The secret becomes apparent.
Argue with these experts, Mr. Pavlenko, if you can. Try to refute!
But the author of the article "State TV has found a new leader for Russia" according to the laws of the genre, which I call "Internet killers", first of all wants to find dirt on me and, for some reason, on my husband, who did not take part in the making of the film.Internet preparations are used, which, however, turn out to be clearly of poor quality, poorly prepared.
V. Pavlenko writes: “In 1990 Z. Chavchavadze established the“Union of the descendants of the Russian nobility”… And in 1995 he headed the board of the“Supreme Monarchical Council”. Then the author of the article builds an incredibly tangled chain of completely absurd inferences in order to substantiate the thesis that he sucked out of his fingertips that "the Chavchavadze couple, boasting anti-Soviet" patriotism ", predictably enters the unsteady path of flirting with the Nazi heritage." It turns out that "flirting with the Nazi legacy" consists only in the fact that ZM Chavchavadze "grabbed" the name "Supreme Monarchist Council" from some figure who, much later, together with the Fuhrer, will participate in the Munich beer coup! But where is the elementary logic here, Mr. Doctor of Political Science ?! Do you seriously believe that this is a sufficient argument ?! And even if we admit that you believe, why are you talking about the “couple” of Chavchavadze with a hangover ?! After all, I obviously had nothing to do with it, I didn’t "privatize" anything from anyone, since I was not a member of any "Monarchist Council"!
And here is how my husband Zurab Mikhailovich Chavchavadze commented on the passage about “flirting with the Nazi heritage”:
“If the author of the article wants to trace some of my sympathies for Nazism, then it is pointless, because I have always hated and hate the Nazis in all their German, Ukrainian and other incarnations. But I remember well how the business was "sewn". My father, a Russian guards officer, after the Exodus from the Fatherland, joined the monarchist organization "Kuzma Minin" in Constantinople in 1921, which existed for only a few months. But after returning from emigration to his homeland, this episode was "sewn" on him to the notorious 58th article and declared an "enemy of the people", as a result of which we ended up in the Gulag: he was in Inta, and we were in Kazakh exile, where we miraculously survived. Comrade Pavlenko reminds me very much of those “fantastically thinking” investigators who fabricated (“sewed”) hundreds of thousands of political cases, also often in violation of elementary logic. Does he really want the return of those times? I would not want and would not wish anyone, including Pavlenko's own family, as well as everyone who is swarming in the current "turbidity of time" …
But in fact, the decision to restore the "Supreme Monarchist Council" was not made by me, but by the All-Russian Monarchist Congress, which took place in 1995 in Moscow and elected me chairman of its board, which included film director Nikita Mikhalkov, writer Vladimir Soloukhin and other respected people who sympathized with the monarchy …
As for the Russian Noble Assembly, being one of its founders in 1990, I voluntarily left it in 1994.
Therefore, everything that V. Pavlenko writes about with such “class hatred” and ardor about the “nobles” led by the “Chavchavadze couple”, neither to me, nor even more so to my wife, who has never been a member of the Noble Assembly, has absolutely nothing to do with it. It's funny to read how “On March 21, 2013 (and I have not been a member of the RDS for 19 years! - Z.Ch.), the RDS under the leadership of the Chavchavadze couple gathers not just anywhere, but in the State Duma (who launched them there?) … In the form of a round table under the pretentious and opportunistic slogan "Assessment of the role of the Bolsheviks and their leaders in world and Russian history." A treacherous lie, Mr. Pavlenko! We were not there and did not even know about this "bunch" !!!
But then one more "political accusation" follows V. Pavlenko: "In 2011-2013, Mr. Chavchavadze … closely" sniff "with the emigre elite, who over the past years and generations, in turn, managed to enter the card index of the Western special services" …
It is difficult to comment on this nonsense, but I would like to ask Mr. Pavlenko: how did he find out the list of those people from the “emigre elite” who entered the files of the Western special services? Did the special services themselves provide him with this information? For money? Or maybe for some kind of service? Interesting! I would very much like to receive an answer …
But let me remind you that Russian President Vladimir Putin personally met with this very “emigre elite”, that is, with our compatriots abroad, and that congresses of compatriots are regularly held in Russia.But for Pavlenko, this is probably not an argument.
And what just made us laugh to tears in Pavlenko's article was the statement that my wife and I “also distinguished ourselves by a number of political initiatives, including a letter to Russian politicians, including the president, demanding an urgent decommunization for money, with the destruction of the mausoleum and drowning the ashes of Vladimir Lenin. In case of successful implementation of the proposed mystery in life, Chavchavadze and the company promised to pay the Russian leadership an indefinite, but in words a very large amount of money."
Brilliant! And to whom exactly did we promise to transfer the money, do you remember Mr. Pavlenko? Is it really Vladimir Vladimirovich himself personally ?! And in which body of water were you going to drown the ashes of the leader of the world proletariat, also do not remember? It's a pity! Because without such details, the mystery constructed by you strongly smacks of some far-fetchedness.
And, finally, a few words about the information circulating on the Internet about my relative Georgy Nikolaevich Ben-Chavchavadze, who served in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War on the Eastern Front. My family knew nothing about him. In 1918, he was in Kiev as an infant in the arms of his mother, who became widowed after his father, a Russian officer, Prince Nikolai Chavchavadze, was shot there. The poor woman tried to escape the country to save the child and herself. Someone helped her change her last name by prefixing "Ben", which seemed to give her some security. Then, when, according to the treacherous Bolshevik Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, German troops entered Ukraine, some German, having met her, offered her his hand and heart, they got married and left for Germany.
There, this German adopted George, but out of respect for the memory of his father killed by the Bolsheviks, he retained the name Chavchavadze for him, albeit burdened with the absurd prefix "ben". This boy grew up as a German citizen and, naturally, ended up in the ranks of the Wehrmacht, since he was undergoing military service by the time the Second World War began (by the way, one of Pushkin's descendants was also mobilized into the German army). So, instead of speculating on this sad story (and I am bitter that my, albeit distant, but still a relative fought against his historical homeland), it would be better to ask the question: why did this happen? But because the Bolsheviks killed Prince Nikolai Chavchavadze only because he was a Russian officer. And, as a result, they doomed his orphaned son to German citizenship, depriving this boy of the opportunity to join the glorious line of Chavchavadze warriors, who for many centuries valiantly defended the Fatherland on the battlefields. And I directly and openly lay the responsibility for the tragedy of this "guilty-free" distant relative of mine on the criminal cruelty of the Bolsheviks.
And Mr. Pavlenko would be good to know that Wikipedia has an interesting article about a certain Pavlenko - Ivan, also with a prefix added to his surname ("Omelyanovich"). And he also fought against his historical homeland. Only he, unlike Georgy Nikolaevich Chavchavadze, was a traitor.
From this texture, some "Internet killer" could also concoct a version of Vladimir Pavlenko's relationship with a Nazi criminal. But we will not allow ourselves to sink to such baseness."
Elena Nikolaevna Chavchavadze: Let's go back to V. Pavlenko's article. Obviously, all of the author's arguments are standard, tendentious and superficial. There are also gross mistakes that are unforgivable for a doctor of political sciences. For example, he assures that “the monarchists in the white armies were pressed harder by counterintelligence than the supporters of the Bolsheviks, and Ivan Ilyin, in whose reburial in Russia Mrs. Chavchavadze put a lot of effort, belongs to the indicative characterization of the“White movement”as an aggregate of“cadet-Octobrist leaders and the Socialist-Revolutionary Menshevik lower ranks ".As for counterintelligence, this is complete nonsense, and about the words of Ivan Ilyin, the great Russian philosopher, I have to upset Mr. Pavlenko: they were said not by him, but by General of the Wrangel Army Y. Slashchev, and after returning to Soviet Russia, clearly wishing to please the new authorities. But this did not save him from death …
In an article by V. Pavlenko, Admiral Kolchak is called in a Bolshevik way a "professional murderer", "whose bloody repressions just turned the Siberian peasantry towards Soviet power." But is it?
Let's see, however, one fundamental document - the resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of September 5, 1918. Kolchak is not yet on the territory of Russia, he is just returning from distant business trips. And the Bolsheviks already clearly declare that "in this situation, providing the rear by terror is a direct necessity … it is necessary to ensure the Soviet Republic from class enemies by isolating them in concentration camps … all persons involved in White Guard organizations, conspiracies and revolts are subject to execution …"
This decree on the Red Terror was followed in September 1918 by the order for hostages. “Significant numbers of hostages must be taken from the bourgeoisie and officers. At the slightest movement in the White Guard environment, an unconditional mass execution should be used."
Well, what can we discuss here? Kolchak, I repeat, is not yet in Russia. And the Bolsheviks give and are actively implementing an unambiguous directive towards mass executions and concentration camps.
We were making a film about the new martyrs. I was shocked by the fate of the first hieromartyr, this is Archpriest John Kochurov, who was shot by the Red Guards in Tsarskoe Selo on November 13, 1917 for a prayer service and a procession of the cross for the pacification of hostility and discord. Killed without trial, in front of his son.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, at a meeting with representatives of the All-Russian Popular Front, said: “Well, well, we fought with people who fought with the Soviet regime with arms in hand. And why were the priests destroyed? In 1918 alone, 3 thousand priests were shot, and in ten years - 10 thousand, on the Don, hundreds of them were allowed under the ice”. This is the opinion of our president.
I will also give some generalizations from the new book of one of the experts of the film "Kolchak's Gold" - Professor V. G. Khandorin "Myths and facts about the Supreme Ruler of Russia", which was published last year, I recommend. A well-known historian, author of several monographs on the Civil War, writes: “It must be remembered that the rampant violence on both sides during the Civil War was the result of mutual bitterness.
But if the White Guard authorities, represented by their top leaders, nevertheless tried to introduce repression into some kind of framework of legality and suppress abuses, then the Soviet government by its acts encouraged in every possible way, in the words of V. I. Lenin, "the energy and mass character of terror." And this is the fundamental difference between the red and white terror."
Also V. G. Khandorin in this work notes that "the hostage system adopted by the Reds was absent from the Whites in a centralized form." And the only order of Kolchak's general S. Rozanov, which spoke of the taking of hostages, was canceled at the insistence of the Minister of Justice of the government A. V. Kolchak. Pro-Soviet historians even sometimes give links to non-existent documents.
The material by V. Pavlenko is accompanied by a terrible photograph with the caption “Victims of Kolchak in Novo-Siberian. 1919 ". This photograph was published in books about the Civil War during the Soviet years. It turned out that these were not “brutally tortured comrades”, as it is written in the photo, but the executed rebels of one of the regiments of Kolchak's army, who raised an SS uprising with the aim of going over to the side of the approaching Reds, transferring the city and power to them. Also the tragedy of the Civil War.But these are not civilians, among them are visible those who are shod in officer's boots … And for some reason the photo is signed "Novo-Sibirskaya", although until 1926 the city was called Novo-Nikolaevsk. This means that the signature was made at least 7 years after the event.
For a modern reader, who often does not know the basics of history at all, a Soviet person brought up on the history of those times, as a rule, it is very difficult to imagine and understand the situation of the Civil War, the balance of forces. By the way, the majority of supporters of communist ideas associate those democrats who came in the 90s and destroyed the Soviet Union with some kind of white people. And, in fact, these zealous democrats of the early 90s resemble the Bolsheviks in the degree of ruthlessness in breaking what they got.
Our viewers, not knowing the history of the First World War, generally cannot understand the motivation of Kolchak, Russian officers.
This motivation was well explained by Russian President Vladimir Putin: "In 1918, Russia concluded a separate peace with Germany and its allies, and six months later found itself in the position of a country that lost to a losing enemy."
V. Pavlenko, without any doubts, repeats about "the Brest Peace that saved the country from ruin in fact". And historians believe that it was the Brest-Litovsk separate peace of the Bolsheviks with Germany, in fact, treason, gave rise to the former allies of Russia to begin intervention.
V. Pavlenko asserts about "complete, one might say, puppet dependence on the West and its special services of the admiral himself." But that is also a lie. The historian P. Novikov says in the film: “Kolchak understands perfectly well that if the Allies win the First World War, they will make very heavy demands on Russia for violating the obligations not to conclude a separate peace. And in this regard, he decides, as an officer, to do everything possible to neutralize this damage, offers, as a private person, his military services to the Entente, offers to go to the Mesopotamian front … ".
Researcher N. Kuznetsov reports that "there are no documents that Kolchak took the oath there, this, of course, is all nonsense … his English service ended before it began."
As for Kolchak's trip with other naval officers to the United States, which we talk about in the film and which is the basis for building all kinds of insinuations, it has already been said a million times - this was a trip to which Kolchak was sent precisely as an outstanding, world-class specialist in mine business. And not at all for the Americans to hoist the flag over the straits, but quite the opposite! It was an opportunity, together with the allies, to end the war with a victory, which, if not for the Brest traitorous separate peace, would have guaranteed Russia control and the Russian flag over these straits, since the corresponding agreement was signed, and Kolchak knew about it.
Victory in that war was simply stolen not only from the Russian officers, but from Russia in general.
Yes, he went to the USA. By the way, after this trip, he concluded that America is fighting for the sake of advertising. Kerensky was simply afraid of him, which is why he sent him to the States. I want to remind you that Kerensky was not only a member of the Provisional Government, but also deputy chairman of the Petrograd Soviet of Deputies. Kolchak himself spoke in detail about his trip to the United States at the so-called interrogations of the Bolshevik comrades-in-arms - members of the Political Center in January 1920. And it is not at all necessary, like Pavlenko, to quote the judgments about that trip of the ordinary Russophobic Sovietologist John Worth.
Indeed, during the Great Patriotic War of the United States, England were our allies, and Soviet officers communicated with them. Many of our commanders and officers had British and American awards. We are now blaming them for this, or what? There was also a famous meeting on the Elbe. It is not clear why the communists are now accusing Kolchak in this issue.
At the same time, forgetting, for example, that under Lenin, on his instructions, a flight school was created in Lipetsk for German pilots in Soviet Russia in Lipetsk, because then defeated Germany had no right to create its own armed forces. Then these aces of the Luftwaffe bombed our cities.
I'm not even talking about the fact that under Lenin there was a pharmacist who came from America, Boris Reinstein, the main adviser on the world revolution. British intelligence officer George Hill, according to his confession, helped the People's Commissar of the Navy Lev Trotsky to create military intelligence and the Red Air Force. In 1917, the manager of a large English trading company, Jacob Peters, also came from England, who became the second person in the department of "proletarian reprisals" - the Cheka. Under his leadership, the 70-year-old professor Platonov was accused of trying to restore the monarchy. Does this remind you of anything, Mr. Pavlenko?
It is interesting that while working with photographic materials, I have never met that the Bolsheviks had some kind of poster - "For Russia". Never. Only for the world revolution or for the 3rd International, at best - "All power to the working people." While for the whites - "For a united and indivisible Russia", this was the main political postulate of the entire white movement. That Denikin, that Wrangel, that Kolchak. They all knew perfectly well who the Bolsheviks were, how and with whose money they entered Russia during the war through enemy territory in a "sealed" carriage. They say this today - show Lenin's receipt where he took the money. But Lenin still graduated from the tsarist university, and he, as a lawyer, perfectly understood what a receipt was, so he always had intermediaries in financial matters.
I will now cite several documents from the book “Germany and the Revolution in Russia. 1915-1918 Documents from the archives of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs”, published in London in 1958 and republished in Russian by the Fundamental Library of Social Sciences of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Serious edition for special guard.
These documents are:
“State Secretary to the Liaison Officer of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the Headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief. Telegram No. 925. December 3, 1917.
Only when the Bolsheviks began to receive constant cash receipts from us through different channels and under different labels, they were able to establish their main body, Pravda, to carry out active propaganda and significantly expand the initially narrow base of their party.
“Liaison Officer of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the Imperial Court of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Telegram number 551. April 21, 1917.
The Army High Command has the following message for the political department at the General Staff in Berlin:
Steinwachs sent the following telegram from Stockholm on April 17, 1917: “Lenin's entry into Russia was successful. It works exactly the way we want it."
“Grunau, Ambassador in Moscow to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Telegram number 122. May 16, 1918
However, I would be very grateful if you instruct me properly on whether it is advisable under the given circumstances to spend more money, and on which side to support in the event of the fall of the Bolsheviks.
“State Secretary to the Ambassador in Moscow, Telegram No. I2I. Berlin, May 18, 1918.
Please spend large sums of money, as it is in our interest for the Bolsheviks to remain in power.
Such are the documents!
And no one from serious local historians disputes the help of the American interventionists to the red partisans of Siberia. Do not believe me - ask, no matter how incredible it may seem. Yes, "allies" will help anyone, as long as there is no "united and indivisible" Russia!
In Tomsk, the Bolshevik Krasnoshchekov, who came from the United States, was sitting next to the Socialist-Revolutionary Kolosov, both brothers of Yakov Sverdlov, one - the banker Veniamin Sverdlov, who immediately became the Deputy People's Commissar of Railways in Russia, the other - Zinovy Peshkov, was an intelligence officer, the closest assistant to the French General Janin.It was a hellish ball! By the way, almost everyone who took part in the struggle against Kolchak was subsequently condemned by the Soviet government as enemies of the people and shot.
Here we cite a document with the words of Graves - this is not some Sovietologist Worth, this is the real commander of the American Expeditionary Corps in Siberia and the Far East, and they were in constant contact with the Political Center. Graves writes to a member of the Political Center Kolosov: “Hold out in Vladivostok for 48 hours and your case is won - our ships from the Philippines will arrive and ensure your success. Contact the Bolsheviks - without them America cannot imagine the future government of Russia."
Kolchak will say about the interventionist allies who appeared in Siberia long before him: “It was not Russia's help. Everything had a deeply offensive and deeply difficult character for the Russians. The whole intervention seemed to me in the form of establishing someone else's influence in the Far East."
The historian N. Kuznetsov says in our film about Kolchak: “He already, of course, understood that he was actually becoming a hostage of the allies, but he categorically rejected all options for leaving for Mongolia or, for example, saving him alone, without those ranks who were with him on his train. And with bitterness, according to eyewitnesses, at that moment he said: "These allies will sell me." This is a Russian officer! And he died with dignity, which was recognized even by the enemies."
But not reserve colonel V. Pavlenko.
In the finale of our film, A. Mosyakin states: “Germany, defeated by the Entente, was paid with the gold of Kolchak for reparations. As a result, the Entente, unable to get Kolchak's gold directly from Kolchak, later received it through the Bolsheviks. Here's what happened. Another part of Kolchak's gold went to the United States of America … By exporting the gold of the Russian Empire to Western banks, the Bolsheviks saved their power. And Admiral Kolchak, who wanted to preserve this gold for Russia, as well as the integrity of Russia, was sacrificed."
This is the result of the film, the result of many years of work by many people.
In responses to my works on the revolution in Russia, I immediately see a certain precondition, apparently, there is a certain group of people hired by someone, I guess by whom, who already write in advance, for example, that I was sold to America. This is after the previous film “Revolution. Trap for Russia”, which tells about the American trail, but, however, in connection not with the whites, but just with the Bolsheviks. And in this film propaganda clichés are completely reversed.
When will the patriotic communists, who are dear to Russia, realize that those who joined the party in the trenches of Stalingrad in 1942, and the international swindlers and businessmen who came to us in 1917 with several passports in their pockets and joined the crowd of people, are absolutely different people. That the proletarian, in spite of Karl Marx, has his own Fatherland.
One cannot but agree with the opinion of the historian V. G. Khandorin, who writes with bitterness about the current situation in the study of our past: “These documents in the overwhelming mass have long been declassified - it would seem, work and research. This is what conscientious historians are doing. But at the same time, the removal of censorship on any publications led to a paradoxical effect - the active composition and replication of new myths. Moreover, impunity in this matter has led to the fact that their writers have already discarded all notions of decency. Not disdaining anything, for the sake of their ideology, they no longer just hush up documents "inconvenient" for them and repeat the falsifications of their predecessors of the Soviet era, but also invent absolutely incredible new fables … Alas, such acts are still outside the jurisdiction of our legislation, and the only way the fight against them is exposure based on historical documents”.
The distributor of such fables, V. Pavlenko, cheerfully ends his article with an ornate passage: “To whom did state TV show another fake? It is hard to say.The notorious "TV party" did not lose to the "refrigerator party", it simply reset to zero, turning into the "Internet party", which today is dominated by Soviet rather than Kolchak sentiments."
But who actually dominates the "TV party" and the "Internet party" today? Here is the objective data on the showing of the documentary film "Kolchak's Gold" on the channel "Russia 1", and at a not very convenient night time from Sunday to Monday. The film ended up in the "green zone" according to the testimony of the editor-in-chief of the TV channel "Russia 1" Lyudmila Romanenko… Experts know that this means leadership in the number of viewers on all channels during this period of time. In terms of the number of people who watched the film, it was not much inferior even to the popular program of V. Solovyov that preceded it.
Incidentally, the film also had a huge number of viewers on the Russia 24 channel, which had two screenings the day before, even without an announcement in the program - 1 million 400 thousand viewers.
We also note that the film has been posted on the websites of the Russia 1 and Russia 24 TV channels on YouTube. We look at the data on March 21: "Russia 24" - 83,947 views. Likes - 823, dislikes - 210. Likes are almost 4 times more!
"Russia 1" - 82,267 views. 828 - likes, 150 - dislikes. There are more than five times more likes.
So the people value documents and facts, not lies, slander, accusations and threats. The last chord in V. Pavlenko's article is a quote from V. Vysotsky: "The layout is not the same, and the number will not work!" Exactly, the alignment is not at all the one that Mr. Pavlenko would like.