Table of contents:
- 1. Choosing a place to install a greenhouse
- 2. Choice of design and design
- 3. Selection of materials for the foundation, frame and cover of the greenhouse
- 4. Internal arrangement of greenhouses
- 5. Basic rules for the arrangement of crops in the greenhouse
With the approach of the summer cottage season, many amateur gardeners begin to think about organizing their site. After all, everyone wants to get the harvest as early as possible, regardless of weather conditions and time of year. A greenhouse will help to cope with these tasks in the best possible way, the design of which will protect the plants from the harmful effects of atmospheric phenomena, while at the same time it will significantly increase the yield. But for this you need to know some rules and nuances, without which its effectiveness will be zero.
Greenhouses on your garden plot will help you grow a high yield.
Today it is difficult to surprise someone with the presence of a greenhouse or an ordinary greenhouse in a personal plot, but their presence does not always help the owners to have an excellent result. After all, their installation requires not only the availability of a land plot, but, most importantly, a competent location and the correct choice of structures for growing specific types of plants. It is these components that can nullify all your efforts. In order not to be mistaken when installing a much-needed plant protection system, because this pleasure is not cheap (even if you do it yourself), listen to the following tips and rules.
1. Choosing a place to install a greenhouse
Considering that most types of greenhouse structures are installed not for one season, but for at least 8-10 years, then the choice of location must be approached thoroughly. Of course, if you buy a ready-made greenhouse, then you are guaranteed to be able to get professional advice, but if you decide to create it yourself, then it is better to follow the following rules:
- choose the most level place that is least exposed to wind loads.
- Install the structure in the most luminous area so that it is in the sun most of the day. It is best to position the side to the south (as it has the largest area).
Variants of arched and gable greenhouses.
- When installing an arched or gable greenhouse, it is necessary to control the distance from trees, buildings or a fence. Not only will shade significantly reduce productivity, but in winter it will prevent snow from melting, which can lead to destruction or excessive flooding and significant cooling of the soil.
Various methods of watering plants in greenhouses (Irrigation and drip).
- The necessary communications must be carried out to the place of installation of the greenhouse - water and electricity.
2. Choice of design and design
The greenhouse must be set according to the size of the available area and the function to be performed.
After you have decided on the location, you will already specifically know what area your greenhouse will have. Modern manufacturers offer a huge selection of greenhouse designs, ranging from 5 sq. meters and ending with huge industrial areas.
The greenhouse can be purchased or made with your own hands.
Moreover, such structures can be created with your own hands, it all depends on your financial capabilities, creative streak and elementary skills. With any method of creating a greenhouse, one must remember that it is its planned area that will become the dominant criterion in choosing both the material for the frame and the main translucent canvas.In this case, it is imperative to take into account the needs of the plants that you plan to grow and be guided by just such criteria when determining the type of the structure itself.
It is also important to clearly understand that it makes no sense to create an expensive professional greenhouse in order to grow greens, some cucumbers and a tomato for salad in the spring-summer period, but it is also not worth trying to grow orchids in a greenhouse.
Do not forget to take into account the cultivation technique and biological characteristics of the plants themselves, for example, arched frame typesuitable for growing greens, onions, strawberries, any root vegetables, eggplant, cabbage, peppers and low-growing tomatoes.
A gable greenhouse - will be the ideal place for growing tall tomatoes, cucumbers, shrubs and flowers.
Original design options for a glazed greenhouse gazebo.
A very interesting option that can serve as both a greenhouse and a closed terrace at the same time - glazed greenhouse gazebo… Such a design is closely adjacent to the house and can serve not only as a place for rest, but also for growing seedlings, greenery, any flowers, vegetables in containers or pots, berries and even a portable garden.
3. Selection of materials for the foundation, frame and cover of the greenhouse
Lightweight mobile greenhouse instructions are ideal for growing vegetables in the spring and fall.
For greenhouse use from April to September, it is better install a lightweight structure with inexpensive covering material. They are mobile and easy to use, because there is no need to make a foundation for them, but as a base from a wooden beam or planed edged board, logs are created, on which the frame and the translucent canvas are directly attached. In this case, the frame can be made of aluminum, steel or plastic pipes, as well as wooden frames.
Options for creating greenhouses with a frame made of pipes and fittings.
If you use pipes as a frame, then they can simply be deepened into the ground and secured with pegs. Ordinary polyethylene film or polycarbonate sheets can serve as a translucent covering material; glass is not used on portable structures. The main thing is not to forget about the organization of top and side ventilation, because any greenhouse lets in a lot of sunlight, and it is very hot in it during the day.
Plastic sheeting and polycarbonate are ideal translucent covering materials for most greenhouse designs.
As a rule, such mobile greenhouses are disassembled in the fall, cleaned and stored until the next season, because their lightweight design will not withstand strong gusts of wind, heavy frost and snow cover.
Stationary greenhouses are built on a foundation or on a plinth.
For greenhouse use year-round, set stationary structures, for which you will need a foundation, and in some cases even a plinth. Therefore, it is better to build a greenhouse in the fall, because it will take a lot of time to create a foundation, because its construction requires a certain amount of time for the material to shrink. Also, when creating it, it is necessary to provide for a drain, in order to avoid locking the foundation.
The frame can be made of profiles, pipes or timber.
As the main frame material, you can use metal pipes, a profile, a wooden beam or ready-made frames, and glass, acrylic, polycarbonate or plastic film can become a translucent filling. The frame should include vertical and horizontal posts (in some cases, even rafters), special connecting elements that must ensure the abutment of all parts of the structure to each other.
It is also necessary to provide for the upper and side windows, which should be easily opened and fixed in the desired position, as well as doors (if the area is large, then two, preferably from the end sides).
4. Internal arrangement of greenhouses
Plants in a greenhouse can be planted directly in the ground or in well-equipped beds.
The layout of the inner area of the greenhouse directly depends on what kind of plants you plan to plant in it and their size. The place for the garden can be directly priming or specially created racks and shelves… In the first case, cultivation takes place directly in the ground, although Novate.Ru experts do not advise doing this, in order to avoid damage to some plant species by diseases and contamination of the soil throughout the area. Better to use pots, containers, boxes or even bags.
Greenhouse crops are best grown in containers, shelves or racks to avoid disease.
In large greenhouses, it is better to install permanently fixed shelves with a lattice surface or portable shelving, which can be removed or rearranged as unnecessary. Such adaptations can perfectly ensure active air movement, which will reduce the risk of plant diseases in a warm, humid environment.
It is necessary to properly compact and rotate the different crops in the greenhouses.
Whatever type of garden you choose, you also need to adhere to agrotechnical standards. So, for example, when landing undersized plants (greens, seedlings, peppers, some types of tomatoes, cabbage and root vegetables, beds (even if these are pots or racks) must be located from north to south.
Mixed plants in the greenhouse must be in the correct direction.
If it will be mixed landings with the cultivation of a certain part of tall or weaving vegetables that require garters on trellises (cucumbers, tall tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkin), then it is better to arrange the beds for uniform and correct illumination of the plants from west to east.
In any case, do not forget about the irrigation system (it is better to use drip irrigation), highlighting and heating the areas if you are growing crops in the autumn-winter period.
5. Basic rules for the arrangement of crops in the greenhouse
To obtain a high yield with the least time and financial costs, you need to familiarize yourself with the cultivation techniques and biological characteristics of the planted crops in advance. For the expedient creation of the necessary zones, you need to make the correct selection and distribution of plants.
Competent zoning and compaction is the key to a good harvest.
Given the limited area and overcrowding of various varieties and crops, the main criterion for distribution is plant height… Subsequently, it is worth paying attention to what the plant needs. If in bright sunlight - planted on the south side of the greenhouse, "amateurs" drafts and ventilation - closer to the vents and doors. If there are special moisture requirements, then it is better to divide the territory into drier and wetter zones and properly distribute the plants in them.
Agricultural technology and biological features of growing cucumbers and tomatoes in the same greenhouse.
Also play an important role alternation and compatibility the cultures themselves. In greenhouse conditions, alternating tops and roots (cabbage – tomatoes – carrots or beets) are used, depending on the "removal" of nutrients by each plant during formation and active growth. If necessary, plant groups and some species can be separated from each other with special screens or more suitable neighbors to reduce interdependence on growing conditions of neighboring crops.
Option for dividing cucumber and tomato plants in one greenhouse.
To increase efficiency, increase yields and provide your family with fresh herbs or vegetables, it is more expedient to grow them with different ripening periods (early and middle). After harvesting early varieties, it is imperative to plant the next early ripening crop, which has the same requirements for agricultural technology and growing conditions.