Table of contents:
- Fringed tongue syndrome
- Parotid fistula
- Waardenburg syndrome
- Ulnar dimelia
Genetics is a strict thing, but sometimes it allows itself to relax. Each of us is unique in its own way: a dimple on one cheek, a cute mole, expressive eyes … all this is great, but there are people who are lucky (and sometimes vice versa) to be one in a million or even to be among several dozen in all of humanity.
Here are 10 scientifically proven anomalies in the human body that often have little to no impact on the quality of life, but definitely make their owner unique.
Just one mistake in the transcription of the sixteenth chromosome, and you are the owner of such an unusual diagnosis. Understood nothing? This is how distichiasis, the "superstar gene", is scientifically described, but in a simple way - a mutation in the form of a double row of eyelashes behind normally growing ones. The queen of Hollywood, Elizabeth Taylor, was the owner of this mutation: stunningly expressive eyes with thick eyelashes without a gram of makeup are the dream of any girl.
True, sometimes distichiasis also causes discomfort. As a rule, an additional row of eyelashes originates from the channels of the meibomian glands at the edge of the eyelid, but other parts of the eyelids can also be affected, and then this becomes a problem.
Fringed tongue syndrome
No, this is not photoshop. No, not aliens. In Latin, such an anomaly is called plica Fimbriata, in Russian - the fringed folds of the tongue. This, as they say, is the remnants of the embryonic past, normal residual tissue that is not completely absorbed by the body during the development and growth of the tongue.
Horny triangular flaps are found on each side of the frenum (the piece of tissue that connects the bottom of the tongue to the inside of the mouth) under the tongue and runs parallel to two different veins.
In 5% of people, there is a completely harmless body anomaly that we inherited from our ancestors. Or even from the "great-great-ancestors." In general, from those who still had gills. This atavism occurs both on one and on both ears at once; it is a narrow, winding canal that opens at the beginning of the curl of the auricle. It does not cause any discomfort, but if desired, it can still be removed surgically.
What do Halle Berry, Oprah Winfrey, Queen Anne Boleyn of England and Slipknot member Sid Wilson have in common? All of these celebrities had one diagnosis - polydactyly, an anatomical disorder characterized by more than normal numbers of fingers or toes. The real record holder among carriers of polydactyly is the Indian boy Akshat Saxe. The guy has 34 (!) Fingers: 7 fingers on each hand and 10 fingers on each leg.
Can you imagine what kind of solos you can play on a guitar or piano with this mutation? However, as a rule, the extra finger is a small piece of soft tissue that can be removed. Sometimes it is just a bone without joints, very rarely an extra finger is full.
Changes in various genes can ultimately lead to Waardenburg syndrome: telecant (lateral displacement of the inner corners of the eyes, while the interpupillary distance is normal), iris heterochromia, gray strand of hair, and often congenital hearing loss. A similar anomaly occurs in one in 42,000 people. Often, owners of such a feature earn themselves frenzied popularity in social networks with its help.
This is a truly rare anomaly - there are no more than a hundred confirmed cases of such a deformation on the entire Earth. The ulna is duplicated, there is no thumb at all, but there are two or three additional ones. Mirror hand syndrome (the second name of ulnar dimelia) does not cause discomfort in everyday life, it has some advantages in general.Even the most slippery glass will not fall out of such a hand, plus you can hold onto the handrails in public transport with a death grip.
Not only distichiasis can make a damn expressive look. There is at least one more completely harmless anomaly - a different color of the iris of the right and left eyes or different colors of different parts of the iris of one eye. All this is the result of a relative excess or lack of melanin. The eye affected by heterochromia may be hyperpigmented or hypopigmented.
The human eye contains three types of cones (ocular photoreceptors), which differ in light-sensitive pigment. S-type cones are sensitive in violet-blue, M-type - in green-yellow and L-type - in yellow-red parts of the spectrum. But sometimes a genetic malfunction occurs, and the person receives an additional fourth fully working type of cones.
Thus, the ability to distinguish a huge number of shades in the yellow-green part of the spectrum arises. Such, even on a gloomy autumn day, will find bright colors without the help of opiates.