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Seven Significant Technologies and Innovations of Ancient Rome
Seven Significant Technologies and Innovations of Ancient Rome
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What do you think a public toilet, a daily newspaper, and a traffic police patrol have in common? No, not at all what you might think. All of this and more have full Roman roots! After all, the Romans were excellent builders and experienced engineers and in general a very savvy people, and their thriving civilization led to advances in technology, culture and architecture that were unmatched for centuries.

It makes sense for many modern builders, doctors and even more government officials to learn from the ancient Romans!

Government subsidies

Ancient Rome had many government programs, including measures to subsidize food, education, and other expenses for those in need. Also under Trajan, a program of "alimony" was implemented to help orphans and children from poor families.Other items, including corn, butter, wine, bread and pork, were added to the list of goods with controlled prices.

Concrete

Roman Coliseum

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Why do you think many ancient Roman structures, like the Pantheon and the Colosseum, even though they were worn out, are still standing? All thanks to the development of Roman concrete. The Romans began using this material over 2,100 years ago and have been actively using it throughout the Mediterranean basin. Of course, their concrete was significantly weaker than what we use today, but nevertheless it turned out to be surprisingly strong.

Slaked lime and volcanic ash known as pozzolan were used to create the building mix. Combined with volcanic rocks like tuff, this ancient cement formed concrete that could effectively withstand chemical breakdown. Pozzolan helped Roman concrete preserve its fortress even when it was submerged in sea water, which allowed the Romans to build sophisticated baths, piers and harbors.

Newspapers

Believe it or not, the ancient Romans had media. These early newspapers, known as the Acta Diurna, or “daily events,” were tablets of metal or stone with messages inscribed on them, which were displayed daily in crowded places.

These ancestral newspapers included details of military victories, lists of games and gladiatorial battles, birth and death notices, and even some stories of interest to humans. There was also the Acta Senatus, which published the minutes of the work of the Senate. Acta Senatus began to regularly conduct and publish in the year of the first consulate of Julius Caesar.

Surgery

The Romans invented many surgical instruments and were the first to use caesarean section, but their most valuable contributions to medicine came on the battlefield. Under the leadership of August, the military medical corps was created, which became one of the first specialized units of field surgery. These specially trained medics have saved countless lives with Roman medical innovations such as tourniquets and surgical clamps to reduce blood loss.

Roman field doctors also examined recruits and helped contain the spread of disease by monitoring sanitary conditions in military camps. Roman military medicine proved to be so advanced that soldiers lived longer than the average citizen, despite constantly facing the dangers of combat.

Roads

roads

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At its peak, the Roman Empire covered an area of ​​almost 4.5 million square kilometers and included most of southern Europe. How to ensure effective management of such a vast territory? Of course, build roads! The Romans created the most complex road system the ancient world has ever seen.

Many of the roads that are still in use today were built with soil, gravel and bricks, or hardened volcanic lava. Roman engineers adhered to strict standards in the design of their lines, even creating special bends to drain water.

By 200 A.D. the Romans built over 80,000 kilometers of roads. On the highway, the Roman legion traveled up to 40 kilometers a day, and a complex network of post offices allowed messages and other information to be transmitted at incredible speed. There were even signs on Roman highways that told travelers the distance to their destination, and special detachments of soldiers served as a traffic police patrol.

Aqueducts

The ancient Romans had complete order with everyday amenities. Public toilets, underground sewers, fountains and ornate baths would not have been possible without the Roman aqueduct. First appeared around 312 BC, these engineering marvels used gravity to transport water through stone, lead, and concrete pipelines to city centers. Thanks to aqueducts, Roman cities were no longer dependent on nearby water sources.

It is worth noting that the Romans did not open America: primitive canals for irrigation and transportation of water existed earlier in Egypt, Assyria and Babylon. But they brought the technology to perfection.

Firstly, water was transported in this way over a distance of up to 100 km, and secondly, you will laugh, but some of the aqueducts are still used today. For example, the famous Roman Trevi Fountain features a restored version of the Virgo Aqueduct, one of the 11 aqueducts of ancient Rome.

The calendar

the calendar

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The modern Gregorian calendar is very similar to the Roman version, which is over 2000 years old. The early Roman calendars were borrowed from Greek models that were synchronized with the lunar cycle. But since the Romans considered even numbers to be unfortunate, they eventually changed their calendar to have an odd number of days in each month.

This practice continued until 46 BC. e., when Julius Caesar established the Julian system. Caesar increased the number of days in the year from 355 to the familiar 365 and eventually included the 12 months that we know today in the calendar.

The Julian calendar was almost perfect, but the solar year was incorrectly calculated (the difference was 11 minutes). In 1582, an almost identical Gregorian calendar was adopted, which eliminated the inconsistency with a leap year.

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