Table of contents:
- Baltic Way
- Minsk Spring
- "The tragedy of April 9" in Tbilisi
- Revolution on Granite
- December events in Almaty
Video: History of protests in the CIS countries
2023 Author: Seth Attwood | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 22:42
In Soviet and post-Soviet times, residents of the CIS countries repeatedly fought for independence and freedom, many protests ended tragically. The authorities dispersed the protesters, the consequence of such actions is the tightening of control over the population and numerous victims. However, in some cases the protesters got their way and the authorities met some of the demands. The article tells about the main protests that took place in the CIS countries and played a decisive role in history.
In 1989, more than two million inhabitants of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia (then part of the USSR) lined up in one human chain. It was 670 kilometers, connecting Tallinn, Riga and Vilnius. The protesters wanted to draw attention to the change in the status of the Baltic states. According to the Secret Protocol to the Non-Aggression Pact between Germany and the USSR, Latvia, Estonia and Finland were under the influence of the USSR, while Lithuania and western Poland were controlled by Germany.
The protesters demanded the independence and unification of the Baltic countries and demonstrated the illegality of the USSR's actions. According to historical research, the idea belonged to the Estonians, and the proposal was made in Tallinn during the assembly of the Popular Fronts. All comers gathered both by their own transport and by public buses.
For those who could not get into the main chain, a separate Kaunas - Ukmerge line was drawn up. Flowers were thrown from planes, despite the bans on flights in the Baltic airspace. People came with the recently banned national flags of the three Baltic republics prior to their inclusion in the USSR in 1940.
At 19 pm on August 23, people joined hands and did not open them for 15 minutes, connecting the three capitals
After the end of the event, the protesters sang folk songs until late at night. “Now the Baltic Way, along with the January events of 1991, is something like Victory Day for a fairly large number of Russians,” said Alvydas Nikzhentaitis, director of the Institute of Lithuanian History, in an interview with Meduza. 6 months after the implementation of the Baltic Way, Lithuania, on March 11, 1990, was the first of the Baltic republics to declare the restoration of state independence.
Minsk spring / charter97.org
On March 24, 1996, a rally was held in Minsk, in which both the opposition and pro-government communists took part. Protesters gathered on Independence Square and staged a procession along Francysk Skaryna Avenue - now it is called Independence Avenue. The organizer was the Belarusian Popular Front (the center-right Belarusian party “Belarusian People's Front”), the organizing committee was headed by Vasil Bykov, a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the BSSR. The action took place on the eve of the signing of integration agreements with Russia.
According to various sources, from 15 to 30 thousand people took part in the action. They chanted slogans "Long live Belarus!", "Nezalezhnasts", "Down with Lukash!" The protesters went to the building of the TV and radio company, but representatives of law enforcement agencies blocked their way.
The protesters went to the KGB, where the police blocked all exits. Clashes broke out on Skaryna Avenue, special forces attacked demonstrators with truncheons. According to official data, it is not known how many people were injured and died, at least 30 were arrested.
Tbilisi / mk.ru
"The tragedy of April 9" in Tbilisi
The "tragedy of April 9" (or "Tbilisi events") is connected with the operation to disperse an opposition rally in Tbilisi. The event is also called the "Night of the Sapper Blades". Law enforcement agencies used rubber truncheons, sapper shovels and gas.“On the morning of April 9, the Soviet Union ceased to exist for Georgia. Everything was in place: the Central Committee, the government, and the security forces - only the Soviet Union was gone, no one listened to decisions and instructions from above,”said Irakli Menagarishvili, director of the Center for Strategic Studies.
At about 4 o'clock in the morning, the internal troops of the USSR and the Soviet army began to disperse the protesters by force. One of the leaders of the congregation was Irakli Tsereteli. “The crowd was silent for ten minutes,” recalls Soviet journalist Yuri Rost. Tsereteli asked the blessing of the Catholicos Patriarch and began to recite a prayer, which everyone repeated. After the prayer, Elijah II said: "If you stay, I stay with you."
Eyewitness memories, BBC material. Lali Kanchaveli, mother of the deceased 15-year-old Eka Bezhanishvili
As a result, 290 people were injured and 21 people died. Two years later, in 1991, an act was adopted to restore the country's independence. 30 years later in Georgia, April 9 is the day of memory of those killed on "bloody Sunday".
On granite / pastvu.com
Revolution on Granite
In October 1990, students and pupils of technical schools and vocational schools gathered on the October Revolution Square in Kiev. From 1 to 17 October, massive student protests took place in the capital. They went on a hunger strike and demanded that they refuse to sign the Union Treaty; in fact, the protesters were in favor of the independence of Ukraine. The authorities provided the students with the opportunity to appear live on the UT-1 TV channel.
The main requirements were:
1. Regarding the holding of new elections:
In 1991, to hold a popular vote (referendum) in the Ukrainian SSR on the issue of confidence in the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR of the twelfth convocation and, based on its results, decide on holding new elections at the end of the year.
2. Regarding the military service of citizens of Ukraine:
Ensure that citizens of Ukraine undergo urgent military service outside the borders of the republic only with the voluntary consent of the citizen.
3. Regarding the nationalization of the property of the CPSU and the Komsomol on the territory of Ukraine:
In accordance with the resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR of October 15, 1990, to consider … the issue of nationalizing the property of the CPSU and the Komsomol on the territory of Ukraine and until December 1, 1990 …
4. With regard to the Union Treaty:
In accordance with the Appeal of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR, adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR on October 15, 1990, to direct all efforts of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR to stabilize the political and economic situation in the republic, to build a legal independent Ukrainian state, to adopt a new Constitution of the republic.
5. Regarding the resignation of the head of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR:
Take into account the message of the head of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR Kravchuk L. M. of October 17, 1990 regarding the resignation of the head of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR V. A.
The government was forced to partially meet the requirements. Ukrainian youths were allowed to serve only within the republic, and the head of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR, Vitaly Masol, resigned.
Almaty / livejournal.com
December events in Almaty
Student uprisings took place in Kazakhstan on December 17-18, 1986. This event is also called Zheltoksan. People were against the decision of the communist government to dismiss the first secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Dinmukhamed Kunaev. The participants demanded to appoint a representative of the indigenous population as the head of the republic, while the authorities were going to give this post to Gennady Kolbin, the first secretary of the Ulyanovsk regional party committee.
This is one of the first meetings of the USSR against the dictatorship of the central Soviet government. On December 17, at 7 am, crowds of young people began to gather on the Alma-Ata square. The siloviki immediately took under protection the savings banks, the buildings of party bodies, the television center, the State Bank. There were more and more activists, as did the police. The military snatched the protesters from the crowd and forcibly took them out of the city.
As a result of the suppression of the uprising, 8500 people were detained, about 1700 people were seriously injured, 900 protesters were arrested and fined, 1400 people were warned. Also followed by layoffs of university teachers and student expulsion.
In September 1990, the authorities identified these events as illegal. In the resolution “On the conclusions and proposals of the Commission for the final assessment of the circumstances associated with the events in the city of Alma-Ata on December 17-18, 1986” the speech of the Kazakh youth “was illegal”.
Representatives of various religious denominations in Belarus, primarily Orthodox and Catholics, do not remain aloof from what is happening. Do they support the protests and how does Lukashenka react to this?
Russian society is in a constant fever: in the shadow of the universal struggle against the virus, the State Duma is actively adopting laws that cause protests from the public, scientists, practitioners in the field of information security, personal and state sovereignty, and even security officials
The Belarusian authorities found themselves in a situation of the narrowest room for maneuver in their history. Society is angry, the economy has been stagnating for ten years, reforms are scary, relations with the West are preparing to freeze, and in order to get Russian support, sovereignty must be shared
As a preface. This article arose as a commentary on an excellent post by Dmitry Steshin on the prospects for what is happening in the United States today
Khakhaleva: how is the wedding of the judge's daughter, the protests of farmers and Kushchevka connected?
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