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TOP 7 conspiracy theories and their global implications
TOP 7 conspiracy theories and their global implications
Anonim

Pseudohistory was created by folklorists, scientists and archaeologists outside the scientific community. She tells what "really" happened in the past of our Earth. These people believe that the truth is either forgotten, or misunderstood, or deliberately hidden from everyone.

1. Margaret Murray and the Witch Trial

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

Margaret Murray was a British folklorist. Years of life - 1863-1963. Until the age of 72, she worked as a teacher, and after retirement returned to archaeological excavations in the Gaza Strip and Petra. Born Murray in India, she was educated at University College London. She was most interested in Egyptian archeology and related folklore. Murray wanted to learn as much as possible about how material artifacts are associated with religious systems.

In 1921, Murray published her first book, the subject of which was quite far from her main field - a book on witchcraft. It was an attempt to answer the question of how many witches were put on trial throughout Europe and America. All of these women were tried for virtually the same practice. All of them confessed to casting the same spells and rituals, despite the fact that in those years there was no convenient communication system through which the groups could exchange information. Murray found it strange that the testimony of many witches was so similar no matter where they were: they made deals with devils, participated in orgies, levitated and knew how to influence love, birth, death and harvest.

Murray's theory was simple: she assumed the witches were real. Murray believed that all the witches devoted to the court for several centuries were in fact a revival of an ancient cult, the object of worship of which was the horned god. She stated that women sacrificed children along with men and practiced cannibalism in the name of their god.

Murray also considered real not only witches, but fairies, gnomes and elves. All of them were allegedly secretive humanoid races that survived from the Neolithic era.

Historians and folklorists did not accept Murray's theory. But her books spawned a new movement of witches and became something of a guide to action for neo-pagans and Wiccans: they allegedly began to practice the same kind of witchcraft that, according to Murray, was already flourishing around the world.

2. James Churchward and Moo

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

James Churchward was born in England in 1851. In the 1890s, he moved to the United States, where he received a number of patents for various rail crutches, processing and hardening of metals and steel. He was a civil engineer who served in the British Army. While working, he came across information about the huge continent of Mu.

Mu was the Atlantis of the Pacific Ocean. Churchward said that when he was in India, he became friends with the priest, who showed him several sacred tablets. They were written in beads of an incomprehensible language, which could be understood by a select few. The priest taught Churchward to read the tablets - so he learned the history of a huge continent that once floated in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Under the continent, a whole cave system allegedly existed, which could either be flooded or, on the contrary, filled with air, so that the entire continent either sank or floated up.

Churchward declared that Mu is the birthplace of the human race and the true cradle of life. Those people who still live on the islands of the Pacific Ocean must be the descendants of the first people. The human race appeared on Mu, and then from there spread throughout the world.

Churchward wrote five books about Mu, where he described in detail as a paradise on earth. They speak of an amazingly complex and advanced civilization that flourished 200,000 years ago.At that time, 63 million people lived on the continent. People there did not get sick, and if suddenly this happened, they were treated with the help of sunlight. They lived incredibly long lives, possessed telepathy and astral projection, and lived in harmony with nature. And all the religions of the modern world originate in the religion of Mu, and this can be traced.

No one took Churchward seriously, but there was one accidental discovery related to his theory. The Pacific Ocean was land-based - the continental shelf around Indonesia. During the Ice Age, it was partially destroyed, and then it was closed by the ocean waters. Once upon a time, this feature was used by people to reach Australia.

3. Robert Bauval and Orion's correlation theory

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

We don’t know much about the Egyptian pyramids, but in 1994, the British Egyptologist Robert Bauwell claimed to have deciphered their hidden code.

According to Bauvel, the pyramids were built in a very specific way: they were mirror images of stars from Orion's Belt. Bauval believed that the Egyptians were guided by this when building the pyramids about 4500 years ago. He also believed that he discovered axes in the pyramids themselves that coincide with the stars in Orion's Belt when they are at the highest point in the sky. Orion, whom the Egyptians called Osiris, was the lord of the afterlife, and tombs were built in his honor. Bauval also spoke of other hints that the Egyptians wanted to honor Osiris when building the pyramids - another tunnel points to the star of Osiris' wife, Isis. Another star is associated with the location of the unfinished pyramid.

Almost the entire scientific community considered this theory nonsense. In 1999, the journal of the Royal Astronomical Society published an article by a professor from the University of Cape Town, where he debunked all Bauval's theories, because the actual layout of the Giza pyramids does not correspond to the position of Orion's Belt in the sky at all. For his measurements, Bauval used the layout and position of the Nile. The article indicates that the course of the Nile has changed a lot over the centuries, and we do not even know which century Bauvel meant.

In 2000, Bauvel retreated - he said that he had never made precise statements on this matter, but only theorized.

4. Graham Hancock and his theory of everything

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

Graham Hancock can rightfully be called one of the fathers of the so-called ancient theoretical astronauts. He became popular thanks to his book "Footprints of the Gods", where he claimed to have found a connection between the gods of Egypt and South America. He believed that they were not so much gods as aliens from other worlds who came to Earth to give people knowledge, which later became the impetus for the development of technology. As proof, Hancock cited Piri Reis, a map that supposedly shows the ice-free coast of Antarctica. This supposedly proves that technology was once more advanced than it is now. This means that civilizations were also more developed than ours, modern civilization.

Hancock wrote several books where the idea was that the Earth was once home to a remarkably advanced civilization that perished 12,000 years ago due to a flood. The basic idea is that similar themes, ideas and structures are encoded in ancient ruins around the world. The fact is that all these ancient ruins can be a projection of the same constellations and patterns, as if they are all remnants of the same civilization, a kind of mysterious mother of all human culture.

In the previous paragraph, we just talked about one of Hancock's followers. Robert Bauval added his Orion correlation theory to the list of documents supporting Hancock's theories and agreed in principle with the existence of a mother civilization that spread throughout the world.

Hancock's theories have been scrutinized and shown to be contrary to conventional science on the BBC's Horizon: Atlantis Reborn. As a result, both Hancock and Bauval filed a complaint with the BBC that their theories were misrepresented.True, the Broadcasting Standards Commission did not agree with them.

5. Christopher Knight, Alan Butler and the aliens from the future who built the moon

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

Christopher Knight is the author of several books. In Who Built the Moon ?, co-written with Alan Butler, he tried to completely change the reader's mind about the Moon.

According to Knight, the Moon is too perfect. It is 400 times smaller than the Sun, 400 times closer than the Sun to the Earth. At the same time, from the surface of our planet it seems that the Moon and the Sun are the same in size, and the Moon acts as an ideal reflection of the Sun. As a proof, Knight cites the theory of a professor from Oxford University, according to which in the ancient mathematical system the circle consisted of 366 degrees, not 360. Based on this, he compared the Sun, Earth and the Moon. With the alternative geometry, all the numbers fit exactly. Knight believes that there can only be one conclusion: the Moon is too perfect to arise by chance. Its size, distance from Earth, gravitational pull and apparent age are all too harmonious.

Knight says the moon could only have appeared in three ways: aliens, humans, and God. And since from the point of view of science and logic only one of the three options is possible, then there is no mystery about where the Moon came from. It was built by aliens from the future, who deliberately moved to the past for this purpose and made sure that people as a species developed on Earth.

6. Paul Rassinier, Harry Elmer Barnes and Holocaust denial

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

There is a whole movement whose representatives deny that there was a Holocaust at all. The theory is built around several key beliefs. She not only denies the responsibility of the Nazi regime for the mass extermination of Jews during World War II and the existence of gas chambers, but also suggests that all the evil committed by the Germans during the war is greatly exaggerated. The theory also insists that the prisoners themselves, and not the Nazis, are to blame for all deaths in concentration camps.

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

One of the founders of the movement was Paul Rassinier, who was for a short time a prisoner of Buchenwald and for a no less short time a member of the French National Assembly. He read reports on concentration camps and death camps that came out after the end of the war, and stated that he had not seen any gas chambers in Buchenwald. There really wasn't one. But Rassinier, on this basis, considered that there were no gas chambers anywhere. He wrote a series of books in which he presented "proof" that there really was no Holocaust. All this is enemy propaganda to justify the introduction of troops into Europe and actions during the war. Rassinier went further and suggested that it was not Germany that started World War II, but that the Holocaust was just an attempt to denigrate it even more.

Harry Elmer Barnes was a contemporary of Rassinier from America. After the war, he expressed a pro-German and pro-Nazi position in his books. He called France and Russia (then the USSR) the aggressors and said that the atrocities committed in the concentration camps were greatly exaggerated. Barnes claims that he is telling the truth and can prove it: if the Germans really wanted to destroy the Jews, they would.

The same position is taken by our contemporary Austin App, who turned the beliefs of Rassinier and Barnes into eight basic "truths" about World War II. He also claims that there were no gas chambers, and the bodies of people who died of natural causes were burned in crematoria. Jews were allowed to freely go wherever they wanted, and those who died in custody in Germany were spies and enemies of the state, so their execution was just. According to Epp, there is no scientific evidence for the Holocaust.

7. Oscar Kiss Meyers and cannibalism

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

Now almost no one remembers Meyers, but he left behind a strange legacy.In 1971, he wrote the book "The Beginning of the End", inspiring the band Devo to songs and, in particular, the concept of the cover: "Man became man thanks to cannibalism - the mind can be eaten."

Myers wrote that people became what they are now thanks to cannibalism. Ancient people ate the brains of other people and primates and literally "gorged" their minds and accelerated the process of evolution. Eating other people's brains gave people higher intelligence, larger brains and large hairless bodies. But people also paid bitterly for such a diet - they became cannibals, which led to the loss of moral principles, the ability to read minds and speak with animals.

The brain, according to Meyers, grew faster than the cranium, so the pressure of the brain on the skull made our ancestors a little nuts. Meyers also told where Bigfoot came from - this species descended from a group of our ancestors who stopped eating brains earlier than humans. Because of this, Bigfoot never became intelligent. It also explains why different races don't have the same head and brain sizes - depending on when they stopped eating other people's brains.

8. Eugene McCarthy and a pig-chimpanzee hybrid

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

Darwin once suggested that chimpanzees and humans descended from the same ancestor. And Dr. Eugene McCarthy took his research a little further and suggested that chimpanzees are only one of our "parents." Working with genetics and differences in traits between humans and apes led him to believe that the human race has another parent who gave us all those traits that chimpanzees could not give. They are pigs.

According to McCarthy, we have many similarities with our primate ancestors: almost hairless skin, protruding nose. And some of the traits clearly refer people to pigs. McCarthy's theory is complex. Among the evidence is the compatibility of pigs and human hearts. He also explains the shortcomings of his theory by the fact that not all hybrid animals are sterile and there is nothing in the history of species that indicates the impossibility of “incompatible” species to leave viable offspring.

McCarthy believes that such a merger could have happened in several ways. In particular, millions of years ago, the first hybrids of chimpanzees and pigs were born - the first early hominids. He also suggests that interspecies mating may have occurred in different regions of the world independently of each other, which gave rise to the difference between human races.

9. Ignatius Donnelly and Atlantis

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

In the generally accepted history, Atlantis is considered a myth - in this dispute, Plato put an end to it. But according to the Governor of the American Civil War era and Member of the Minnesota House of Representatives Ignatius Donnelly, Atlantis was absolutely real.

So it is written in his book "Atlantis - the world before the Flood" of 1882. The civilization of the lost island was quite real. Throughout Donnelly's book, he tries to prove that an island in the Atlantic Ocean lay approximately at the same latitude as the Mediterranean Sea and was the home of the first civilized society on Earth.

When Atlantis plunged into the ocean, several groups of people escaped and fled to other regions of the world, carrying the tales of their homeland. These stories gradually turned into myths that are reflected in all world religions: the Garden of Eden, the Champs Elysees, Asgard - all of this echoes Atlantis. The gods and goddesses worshiped by people all over the world were originally the surviving Atlanteans. First of all, this applies to Ancient Egypt, since it was closest to the lost island.

Donnelly pointed out that the likelihood of such a catastrophe is great, and he cited Pompeii as a historical example. He argued that the idea of ​​a real Atlantis largely explains the similarities in the mythologies of the world and the story of the great flood that all peoples have. A breakthrough in technology and civilization occurred at the same time when refugees left Atlantis along with their knowledge and brought it to other regions.

Donnelly also points out that all peoples worshiped mother earth and her fertility, virgin priestesses, clergy castes, the secret of confession, fear of otherworldly beings like werewolves. Donnelly believed that all this can only be explained by the reality of Atlantis or another culture, from which all modern civilizations originated.

10. Zechariah Sitchin and the theories about ancient astronauts

10 pseudo-historians and their strange theories

Like many other pseudo-historians, Zecharia Sitchin received a good education. He received his degree in economic history from the University of London and lived for a time in Israel. Then he moved to New York, where he died in 2010.

Sitchin is one of the founders of the theory of ancient astronauts. One of them, but far from the only one. His theory is based on a planet called Nibiru, which approaches Earth every 3600 years. For the first time, aliens came to Earth 450,000 years ago to mine gold. Here they found a race of potentially sentient beings capable of assisting in the prey, but they needed a little nudge in the right direction. Aliens became the gods of ancient people, and ancient texts speak of aliens - you just need to know how to read them correctly.

With the help of aliens and their technologies, humanity built the first large cities. However, about 30,000 years ago, these cities died in massive floods. Around 550 BC, the aliens finally left humanity, left to its own devices ever since. Facts have turned into mythology and religion, and we have only now managed to translate ancient texts in order to find out at last the true history of mankind.

Unsurprisingly, historians and archaeologists have smashed the theory to pieces. Well, such versions appear among theorists who have a kind of "secret knowledge" and interpret the ancient tablets and inscriptions in a way that suits them.

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