When Pra-Peter drowned. Part 4
When Pra-Peter drowned. Part 4
Anonim

Geology. There will be many cards.

However, I will not start with the cards. Recently I had two articles where I analyzed official written sources on the processing of granite during the construction of St. Petersburg. I highly recommend reading them to be aware of the problem. And on this I will immediately give links. The first article, the second article, which, in general, is just a continuation of the first. I will briefly outline the essence, if someone is too lazy or has no time to read these articles. Written sources of the 19th century on the processing of granite for iconic St. Petersburg buildings are replete with inconsistencies and contradictions. And in some cases, it is banal stupidity. However, even this is not the main thing. God bless her, with stupidity. We have fools in store for a hundred years in advance (Russian proverb). So there is fertile ground. The main thing is that now those granite workings, quarries or quarries, as they are called, in which blocks for famous St. Petersburg monuments could be broken, are simply absent. There are none. Here is such a paradox. We are assured that they used to be. In the 19th century they were, but in the 20th and 21st they are no longer there. The trump card in the arguments of the official historians was also the stele on Vosstaniya Square, weighing under 400 tons. However, as it turned out, this example is not correct, because the stele was made of a different type of granite. Made of gray fine-grained granite. And all of St. Petersburg is made of pink coarse-grained rapakivi (except for the Atlanteans and several other monuments). These "pink" rapakivis are commonly referred to as "vyborgits". At the same time, even in the case of gray granite, the fact that suddenly there was a way out of a section of rock from which it became possible to make this stele is unique. Here is an excerpt from my correspondence with Professor of the St. Petersburg Mining University, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences M.A. Ivanov.

I AM:

- Are there currently well-known quarries in which it is possible to produce blocks of several tens or hundreds of tons of pink rapakivi? To produce high quality products, that is, not fractured. And if so, how close are they to Petersburg?

M. A. Ivanov:

- the likelihood that a large monolithic block of these rocks could be found among fractured granites should be estimated directly at a specific deposit. Although, in principle, this probability is usually negligible. The only one of its kind and a unique deposit of block granite (gray rapakite granite) of high preservation in our region is "Vozrozhdenie" in the Vyborg region.

And this unique case, a unique find of a rock outcropping of non-fractured gray granite measuring 60x10x8 meters, was decided by the USSR leadership to use it for good. And this stele was made.

A truly grandiose structure. There are no others like this anywhere in the world. Not in the world, but in St. Petersburg. The Alexander Column stands on the Palace Square. It is one and a half times heavier (600 tons), while both longer and thicker. And the shape is much more complicated - a truncated cone. The stele on Vosstaniya Square is much simpler in geometric terms. Nevertheless, all the power of the Soviet industry produced it for half a year. They could not do it in the form of a column. And Montferrand, allegedly 150 years earlier, was able to work with a chisel by illiterate laborers. By the way, the monolith cut out of the rock from which the stele was made, weighed 2,200 tons. This is, for understanding, by weight as 37 railway cars with gravel. It is not difficult to guess that the monolith under the Alexander Column should have weighed even more. Okay, read my articles on the links, everything is detailed there. We will not talk about this anymore.

So, the point is that now there are well-known granite quarries, in which the development of blocks weighing tens and even more hundreds of tons could be carried out, for the manufacture of products comparable in volume and weight with the columns of St. Isaac's Cathedral, the Alexander Column and other large high-quality products from coarse-grained "pink" rapakivi, does not exist. All known pink rapakivi quarries have very highly fractured rocks.You can cut curbs, other relatively small blocks for facing, pedestals and other items, but in general, the volume and mass of such blocks is limited. A couple of tens of tons maximum, and then if you're lucky. Columns of St. Isaac's Cathedral cannot be made. And they are. Isaac's Cathedral is. And not only him. In St. Petersburg, there are generally more columns than square meters. I'm kidding, of course, but the count is measured in thousands. Of course, not all of them are granite, and even more so large. But nonetheless. It is granite and weighing more than two dozen tons that there are several hundred. There are 112 of them in St. Isaac's Cathedral alone. Of these, 48 pieces of 114 tons each (below), another 24 pieces of 64 tons (at a height of 43 meters). And then there are marble columns, there are also quite a few of them in the city and its environs. By the way, granite columns are lying around even in the bay. A couple of photos. Returning to part 1 of the article, where the degree of erosion of granite was considered, note that the granite of the columns has an extremely high degree of erosion, that is, several units more than, for example, on forts. And it is very close to what we saw at the Smolny Cathedral or Staro-Kalinkin bridge. Clickable.

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Why am I so deeply distracted by granite. This is geology. Now the granite outcrops are fractured. Too much, especially in the case of pink rapakivi. But there was a time when the granite outcrops were not fractured. It remains to figure out the reason for such changes and try to date them.

Now the actual maps and their analysis.

Once the city was under water. It was for a long time. And this is reflected in the maps.

Here is a 16th century map. A lot of strange things. For example, there is no Ladoga Lake in the volume we are accustomed to. And Onega is somehow too small. But Lake Peipsi is also of a normal size.

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Also the 16th century, allegedly 1575. Small scale map, however we see that Ladoga and Onega are not. It is noteworthy that Solovki is marked on this map, while we see neither Kiev, nor London, nor Rome, nor Athens. But we see the legendary Troy on the site of Istanbul. The Volga and Don are branches of the same source. Taimyr is covered with forests. 5 cities are marked on the Ob, while there are only three on the Danube, and two cities on the Volga.

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This is the 17th century. We see that Ladoga has already been formed, but the Baltic Bay is still there. As well as Lake Peipsi. Onega is unnaturally small, Svir is not. Notice how the Caucasus is drawn, where the Kuban flows and where it flows. Some kind of incomprehensible chain from the Volga to the Dnieper is marked..

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Also 17th century, 1677. Learn more here Northwest. There is Ladoga and Onega, and there is Svir. There is no Neva, instead of it there is a strait. There is a large island next to Narva (it is also on other maps, but I will not post it, the essence is the same). Coastal zone of the Gulf of Finland along the Baltic klint. There is a chain of islands along the southern coast.

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This map shows this chain of islands better. This is 1680.

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A fragment from a globe, dating unknown, but this is most likely the middle of the 17th century. According to a number of features, including the meridian grid, the globe correlates very well with the Mercator map of 1636. A detailed analysis of the globe is here. I recommend studying, a lot of interesting things. There is no Ladoga, but Onega is. Instead of Ladoga, two unnamed lakes are designated, apparently they will become Ladoga.

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There is also a jubilee medal issued for the 100th anniversary of the birth of Peter the Great. A very interesting medal. There is no Neva on it, instead of it there is a chain of lakes, they are so signed - Nevsky Lakes. Apparently this is indicated by a system of locks and reservoirs on the Tosna and Mga rivers.

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By the way, Tosna is drawn on the medal. The Neva was formed along the old channels of the Tosna and Mga during the breakthrough of the isthmus, there are now the Neva rapids. They are also called the Ivanovo rapids. It is very important here that the medal is dedicated to Prince Rurik. And according to historians of that period during his reign, this is exactly what this territory looked like. Please note that the map shows a waterway from the Baltic to Ladoga (on the medals from the Varangian Sea to the Ruskoe Sea). Now there is no such artery. But there is its southern part, this is the modern Luga river. And in the northern part there are now completely swamps with peat bogs (there is a huge peat factory), and a system of lakes with the Nazia river.This is just in the subject of geology. For such a waterway to exist, the water level in the Baltic must be raised. It can also be seen that the Sestra river connects the Baltic with Ladoga (north of the Neva lakes). The coastline is drawn along the Baltic klint (ledge). And if you take a closer look, then on a small glint. There are two klints, large and small, few people know about this. Small in the middle between the large ledge and the modern bank. It is most pronounced in the area in the Koporye region. I wrote about him in an article about what trees grow on, and in part 1 of the article I laid out a diagram on which the glint is displayed. This suggests that there were two sea levels. The only question is how they are spaced in time. This is if you do not deeply analyze. But, I thought a lot about this topic and came to the understanding that both ledges did not literally reflect the coastline. Coastal scarps reflect two stages of uplift and swelling of this geological location. And the fact that there was water, it just happened, it's secondary. In general, to make it more understandable, if I did not express my thought very correctly, then it was not the water that left, but the earth rose. And if in one place it swelled and rose, then in another it fell somewhere, without this there is nothing. Moreover, it did not happen anywhere. This event had a chain reaction, that is, a number of territories rose, a number of territories fell. Some to a greater extent, some to a lesser extent. Based on a set of maps from different eras, you can calculate what, where and how it happened. I will describe all this in detail in the final part of the article with conclusions.

By the way, the old "Tosna bed" was marked on the maps of the Neva Bay up to the beginning of the 19th century. I showed one of these cards in the second part of the article. I put the phrase "Tosna bed" in quotation marks, for this is a conventional Tosna bed. So it is now accepted to be considered by some researchers. Now I will not dwell on this in detail, this issue will be disclosed in the last part of the article.

Here is another map where the old "Tosna riverbed" is drawn. This map is also interesting because it apparently shows the old coastline that existed in the old city before its death. We see an almost straight cut in the vertical axis, most likely it was also ennobled with a stone. And this stone went in the 18th century to the facing of the Neva, city rivers and canals. And maybe somewhere else, to the same Kronstadt or to the forts. Modern depth measurements and navigational charts show nothing of the kind. There are no channels of Tosna and there are no such shallows, and those shallows that are, in fact, look different. So this is definitely a redrawing from some old map, or rather a compilation (overlay) of an old map on a new one. Later, when the bottom was explored, dredging was carried out, the fairways were dug, other maps were already drawn. This map dates from 1740.

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By the way, since we are talking about the borders of the antediluvian city, I would like to note that in Kronstadt layers of peat were found 6 meters below the current water level. There is an official explanation for this fact - the level of the so-called Ancylovo Lake (on the site of today's Baltic Sea) was below sea level. Before the breakthrough of the bulkhead with the Baltic in the Copenhagen region 7, 5 thousand years ago. However, I think this may be talking about something else. For example, that the border of the city was beyond Kronstadt, especially since there begins a sharp drop in depth. And the section of the modern Neva Bay from St. Petersburg to Kronstadt could have been a flooded meadow, a system of dams, reservoirs, canals, and the like, especially since the Tosna bed was still there. In particular, the lakes Lakhtinsky and Sestroretsky Razlivy may indicate the remains of this old system.

Go ahead. Next card. End of the 17th century, 1699. The mouth of the Neva. However, according to my calculations, this map reflects the water level as of the 80s of the 17th century. This is about 3-4 meters higher than the current level.

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There is also such a map. It is interesting because the Koporye fortress is painted on the seashore. Now from the fortress to the water 12 km and it is 100 meters above sea level.We do not see any islands in the Neva delta, or rather, only one is drawn, and it is very likely that it is somewhere in the modern Frunzensky district. There is a relative elevation there. If the whole city has a level of 6-9, locally up to 12-13 meters above sea level, then there is 17-19 meters. Smolny also has a small elevation up to 17-18 meters, maybe it is somewhere in that area. That is, this suggests that the old city is still under water and the water level in the Neva delta is 8-10 meters higher than the modern one. No more, because Kronstadt is drawn, and if the water level were more than 12-14 meters, then Kronstadt would have gone under the water.

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The figures given are taken from height maps, in particular from this one. However, most likely, the figures of this kind of maps should be trusted with caution, because geological information suggests that the islands of the Neva delta have elevations of 2-3 meters above sea level, while their coastal part is 1 meter below sea level. They say that the sea level taken as an ordinary is obtained only in the case of a surge wave from the west. In principle, as a resident of St. Petersburg and a fisherman who knows fluctuations in the water level, in this case, I am ready to agree with the opinion of geologists. Then it turns out that on the shown map with one island in the Neva delta, the excess of the water level over the present one at the mouth of the Neva will not be 8-10 meters, but 4-6 meters.

It is also very interesting that the Yam fortress (now Kingisepp) is, in general, in its place. Perhaps the Luga Bay is too pronounced. This fortress is also on the Baltic klint. Only the cliff in this place is not very pronounced, the ledge is only fifteen meters long. There will be a small ledge of similar height in the region of Koporye and Lubenskoye Lake. At the same time, a large ledge in the Koporye region is about 80 meters. Thus, we get a plot of maximum elevation of the land, this plot begins in the Koporye region and ends in the Gostilitsy area, then the elevation difference begins to smoothly decrease again. From Koporye to Gostilitsy about 30 km. In the area of ​​Krasnoe Selo (the modern border of St. Petersburg) the drop is already about 50 meters, another 10-15 km to the east, in the area of ​​Pushkin it is already only 25-30 meters. And after another 10-15 km, it is hardly noticeable and does not exceed 10-15 meters, as in Kingisepp.

It is also very good to add a drawing of the city of Narva to this map. Narva is also on the Baltic klint and there the klint is just as poorly expressed as in Kingisepp. The drawing is notable for the fact that ships are visible on it, that is, Narva on the seashore. Now from the fortress to the sea 12 kilometers, as in Koporye. In order for the ships to be able to moor as shown in the figure to the fortress itself, the water level must be approximately 20-25 meters higher. If we take into account that the drawing is conditional and the ships dock a little further from the fortress, on the ledge of a small klint, then the water level will be 10-12 meters higher than the current one. In this case, the distance from the fortress to the sea should be about 5-6 km.

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I also consider it necessary to note the fact that this glint is not the only one. There is also the Ilmensky klint, it is small, only 8 km long, but its geological origin, in my opinion, has one source with the Baltic klint.

We pass from graphic cards to satellite maps. And here it is very interesting. Let's start with the Koporye region.

There is a very remarkable lake 10 km from Koporye. It is called Teglitskoe. It is almost regular round in shape. I showed the diameter with a ruler.

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It is near Koporye itself. We see a pronounced ring structure with a diameter of a kilometer.

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Note that this ring structure is adjacent to another, larger one. However, it is less pronounced and you need to look closely to see it. Here is a separate photo of it. Diameter 2 km.

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Further. It is 15 km from Koporye, Lake Lubenskoye. Around the lake, we also observe a series of ring-shaped structures. I want to note that this lake is very shallow and the bottom is as flat as a table, up to the waist. The purest sand. Only along the northern coast is a small steep coast with depressions up to 2-2.5 meters. The lake itself is a beaver waste product. They blocked off all the forest streams and it so happened that water is collected in this hole. For the local forester, beavers are a terrible headache.In years when it is possible to reduce the number of beavers, the water level drops and the lake acquires an almost regular round shape.

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Something like this. It is also nearby, 11 km from Lake Lubenskoye. Kalischenskoye lake is called.

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In order not to bore you, I'll show you the last "funnel" and that's enough. It is near Kolpino, on the right you can see the Neva.

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I would like to note that such ring structures are found only in the area of ​​the Baltic klint. And above and below. I did not find it on the Karelian Isthmus. In general, there are a lot of such ring structures. All over the ball. There are a lot of them in our Arctic and Siberia. Hundreds. The explanation there is simple, these are karst outcrops of hydrogen. However, in our case, it will hardly be possible to write off everything as hydrogen. First, the dimensions of the ring structures. They are too big. Karst sinkholes usually do not exceed several tens of meters, rarely hundreds of meters. In our case, the diameters of the funnels are measured in kilometers. Secondly, karst formations are usually deep. Often very, very deep, because it is commonplace to sink holes in the ground. The question with these ring structures has been of interest to me for a long time and I even turned to the Mining University in St. Petersburg with a request for a scientific explanation. As it turned out, there is no scientific explanation. I quote literally the answer of M.A. Ivanova:

- The isometric shape of lakes, swamps and other manifestations of ring relief forms can be determined by many factors. In our area, as you know, sea and glacial processes played a significant role. The geotectonic processes manifested on the Baltic Shield in the postglacial period definitely affected. Other reasons, including cosmogenetic ones, can also be discussed. But without serious geological research, based on the results of geophysical and geochemical work, it is impossible to draw scientific conclusions about these phenomena.

Translated from scientific into simple language, it sounds like this - our university has not carried out any work on these ring structures, we do not know what it is and how to explain it. The word cosmogenetic should be understood as the possibility of the consequences of a strong air explosion. Including the type of the Tunguska meteorite.

Now to earthquakes.

As it turned out, there are written sources about this. Not surprisingly, considering the factual material in this article. Large-scale geological shifts could not fail to be noticed. The chronicles have preserved for us the news of the geological disasters that took place on the shores of the Baltic Sea.

- “In the summer of 6738 (1230) the earth was cracking along Velitsa days (after Easter) on Friday for 5 weeks at lunchtime, while others dined”, - a quote from the first Novgorod chronicle. It is important to celebrate Easter here. If it is Christian, then the date is floating, back and forth for a month and a half. If pagan, then this is the day of the vernal equinox. In the same chronicle under 1176 it is noted that

- “The Volkhov river this summer for five days went“on a platoon”, that is, had a reverse flow.

The earthquake was noted by chroniclers and a little earlier, for example, in 1107, we read:

- "the earth is stressed in the month of February on the 5th day." Here, however, it is worth noting that the text of the later revision is on the face, in particular the name of the month February. Although it is no wonder, we have reliably confirmed documents earlier than the 16th century, we can say that no, all late copies or correspondence. Chronicles in the first place. However, there is no smoke without fire, and the fact of earthquakes is obvious. Only dates are conditional.

By the way, the chronicles describe earthquakes not only in the Baltic region. For example, the Tale of Bygone Years describes an earthquake in Kiev, and in the same 6738 (1230) year, as in the Novgorod first chronicle.

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- About the earth shock. 738g. (1230) In the month of May on the 3rd day, during the holy liturgy, when the holy gospel is honored, in the church of the Holy Mother of God in Volodymeri, the earth shook, and the churches and the meal, and the icons of the podvizash (moved) along the walls, and chanted with candles, and the luminary hesitated (the candlesticks swayed).

Here again there is a late correspondence, the month of May was then called differently. In general, the calendar was different.The number of seasons, months, days in a month, days in a week, hours in a day, etc.

- People are amazed, and they think that the head has gone around (the head is dizzy) kozhoih tako droug drougu skazovahou, he is already wondering that this is.

The church building collapsed into 4 parts.

- In Kyev, the city of more than that, the most rapid shock in the monastery of the Pechersk, the church of the Holy Mother of God, stone in four parts razstupisya.

It is described that after the earthquake it rained for 4 months (Annunciation - March 25, Ilyin's day - July 20) followed by a cold (in July!) And everyone died. Please note that in this case the dates of the Annunciation and the Pagan Passover coincide. In general, Christians simply called pagan Easter the Annunciation. In general, they altered many pagan holidays in their own way.

- And God will be angry, and devastate the earth. And there will be rain from the Annunciation to Ilyin days, day and night. And the age of a hundred days and the scum of Velitsa (severe frosts) and beat every living thing..

They ate all the dogs and cats, ate moss, trees and leaves, cannibalism flourished.

- Glad most of all spread out inaccuracies all over the earth, but also in Novyegrad, exactly except for the united Kiev. And only the anger of God was as if inaccurately the dead people of the yadyahu, but also the living people of the friend of the oubivahui yadyahu. And hedgehog horse meat and psi, and cats, and other such where someone crawled yadyakhu, other moss and pine, and elm, and linden bark, and yadyahu leaves..

- Evil people, wherever you hear about someone else, I come by force to the place of repentance grabyahou and kill. And the anger of God spreads out and the people grow thin on this earth, they are not innumerable. This same happened two summers 6737-6738 (1229-1230)

And the corpses were put in mass graves.

- Stvorish 4 skudelnitsa and put 16 thousand in two, and in the third 7 thousand, and in the fourth 9 thousand, now it was two summers (the plague lasted two years)

The Tale of Bygone Years, describing the horrors of the earthquake and famine of 1230, provides another very interesting information. About an incomprehensible phenomenon in the sky. Even before sunrise, something bright and triangular appeared in the sky, which soon disappeared. And then the real sun rose as usual.

- The same month, the 10th day, I saw a netsy sun (a kind of sun, shone) rising early. And it was three ougly (a triangular luminary), then it was not much faster than a star and taco disappeared (turned into a star, and disappeared) then went out in its chino.

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This is what we note. An earthquake of the 13th century could have caused a flood, and even a mudflow. In this case, inevitably, some areas could sink, for example, the modern deep-water part of Ladoga, Novgorod (Volkhov flowed back) and a number of other places.

Continued in the next part.

Links to go:

- 1 part.

- part 2.

- part 3.

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